Seventeen individuals are honored at the Polio Hall of Fame in Warm Springs, Georgia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polio_Hall_of_Fame, dedicated in 1958
2008 …” four new inductees have spent the last two decades striving to also eliminate the polio in third world countries worldwide. They are Rotary International, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund.” http://www.times-herald.com/Local/Dr-Peter-Salk-to-visit-Warm-Springs-580406
3) Ivar Wickman, Swedish researcher, 1890s; demonstrated the ‘nonparalytic’ type of polio, accounting for 99% of polio infections, and experienced most often as influenza. During the 1911-12 epidemic in Sweden, Wickman gained status as a world authority on polio but “Wickman’s important research has only rarely been appreciated, perhaps due to the more or less simultaneous discovery of the etiologic agent by Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper in November-December1908. The history of the etiology of poliomyelitis is a history of errors…” http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/full/73/6/4533
4) Karl Landsteiner, Austrian researcher; discovered the virus in 1908. Landsteiner emigrated to the US by invitation to work for the Rockefeller Institute in 1922; https://polioforever.wordpress.com/karl-landsteiner/
5) Thomas M. Rivers, President of Rockefeller Institute; *AFEB ; Rivers headed the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission to assess the health effects of radiation on survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki https://polioforever.wordpress.com/thomas-m-rivers/
6) Charles Armstrong, USPHS – “A .. highlight of poliovirus research was the adaptation of the Lansing strain..to mice by the persistent effort of Charles Armstrong in 1939 (1)” http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/reprint/73/6/4533
7) John R. Paul – (1893–1971) Yale; *AFEB; MD from Johns Hopkins; “established the Yale Poliomyelitis Study Unit in 1931 with his close friend and collaborator James Trask…In 1936, they received the first research grant given by the President’s Birthday Ball” [see March of Dimes page]; chief of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology at Yale http://info.med.yale.edu/library/news/exhibits/publichealth/publichealth2.html
8 Albert B. Sabin – joined the Rockefeller Institute in 1935;* AFEB Commission on Neuroptropic Virus Diseases; https://polioforever.wordpress.com/albert-sabin/
9) Thomas Francis Jr., -Yale; dean of UMichigan School of Public Health; Rockefeller Hospital; *AFEB ; Francis immediately followed his supervision of Jonas Salk and the IPV Field Trial evaluation with the reorganization of the “A-Bomb Lifespan Study” https://polioforever.wordpress.com/thomas-francis–jr/
11) Isabel Morgan – (1911-1996) *AFEB; daughter of geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan; graduate of Stanford and UPenn; joined the Rockefeller Institute in 1938 under Peter K. Olitsky http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabel_Morgan
12) Howard A. Howe, (1901- ) *AFEB; articles published in Harper’s magazine http://harpers.org/subjects/HowardAHowe ; worked with Isabel Morgan and David Bodian at Johns Hopkins http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,854756,00.html
13) David Bodian – (1910-1992) MD from UChicago, prof. at Johns Hopkins;http://medicalarchives.jhmi.edu/sgml/bodian.htm; obit http://www.nytimes.com/1992/09/22/obituaries/david-bodian-82-leading-force-in-development-of-polio-vaccines.html?pagewanted=1
14) John F. Enders, Boston Children’s Medical Center, Harvard; *AFEB; known for “cultivation of poliomyelitis virus in cultures of human foreskin and embryonic tissues”, Lansing Strain http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15391699 published Jan-Oct.1949; biog. sketch http://scienceheroes.com/index.php?…&Itemid=117
15) Jonas E. Salk – CCNY; MD residency at Mount Sinai Hospital; UMichigan, UPittsburgh; *AFEB Commission on Influenza; https://polioforever.wordpress.com/jonas-salk/
16) Franklin Delano Roosevelt – Asst. Secretary of the Navy in WWI, FDR contracted Spanish Flu in 1918; 1921 polio victim; 2-term Gov. of New York; 4-term US President, died in office April 12, 1945 while at his suite in Warm Springs, Georgia (pictured)
*AFEB, stands for the Army Epidemiological Board (AEB) which was organized in 1939 and began recruiting civilian medical researchers as officer inductees. After 1946, the Army expanded the mandate of the Board to reflect all branches of the military, changing the name to the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board (AFEB); thus AEB is a wartime distinction and AFEB is the postwar organization, used here to represent the lifetime of the organization (1939- ) and its “Commissions System” which was phased out between 1973 and 1977.
The activity of the AFEB is the historical militarization of American medicine https://polioforever.wordpress.com/afeb/
Polio Research professionals:
Mary Putnam Jacobi – first to publish the neuropathology of polio in 1886; daughter of publisher George Putnam (Skull&Bones) and wife of Abraham Jacobi, the ‘father of pediatrics’. The Jacobi’s were advocates of ‘radical’ social causes. Abraham Jacobi was a key ally in Nathan Strauss’s campaign to pasteurize milk and was a godfather of sorts to the Rothschild’s Hospital for Joint Diseases and co-founder of Lennox Hill Hospital [see the Henry Frauenthal page]
Milton J. Rosenau — (1869-1946) 2cd chief of the US Hygienic Laboratory from 1899-1909; built up the lab from a single office to a campus institute that became the NIH in 1930; quarantine officer in San Francisco and Cuba 1895-1898; member of the federal Commission on Plague in San Francisco 1901-03; specialist in polio and milk pasteurization; dept. chair at Harvard 1909-1935 and (new in 1922) School of Public Health; American Jewish Relief envoy to Palestine 1914 and 1922, including post-revolution Russia; member of the Public Health Board of Hadassah; chief of Chelsea Naval Hospital, Boston, during the Spanish Flu 1918-19; founder of Univ. North Carolina School of Public Health in 1940 http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm484061.htm
Carl Kling – “Flexner’s views on the strict neurotropism of poliovirus and on its entry into the body by the nasal route.. dominated poliovirology so that other experimental evidence was more or less neglected for about 25 years until the1930s. In particular, the exciting results of a young Swedish team consisting of Carl Kling, Wilhelm Wernstedt, and Alfred Petterssonpublished in 1912 (11, 12) were disregarded: the authors had demonstrated poliovirus in fatal and nonfatal cases of poliomyelitis..” http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/full/73/6/4533
Constantin Levidati — “There were attempts as early as 1913 by Constantin Levaditi (16) to replicate poliovirus in tissue culture.” http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/full/73/6/4533; Kling and Levidati proposed in 1929 that poliovirus was probably water-borne, observing high case rates near watercourses.
Maurice Brodie — (NYU) tested an experimental vaccine that killed half of the participants. Brodie died young in 1936.
Joseph Stokes Jr. –AFEB, Chair of UPenn Pediatrics, Physician-in-Chief of the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; experimented with gamma globulin for polio in the 1930s and joined the G.G. vaccine trials of William Hammon in Provo, Houston and Sioux City. Joseph Stokes III became the chartering dean of the UCSD School of Medicine in La Jolla, CA (research alliance with SALK and SCRIPPS Institutes)
Horace L. Hodes — AFEB Commission on Measles and Mumps; director of the Sydenham Hospital in Baltimore; discovered diarrhea-causing rotavirus; 40 year career practice at Mount Sinai Hospital; (obit) http://www.nytimes.com/1989/04/25/obituaries/horace-hodes-a-pediatrician-81-linked-virus-to-gastroenteritis.html
Renato Dulbecco (see SALK Institute page) and Margaret Vogt
Frank Macfarlane Burnet — one of the world’s most prominent influenza researchers [see page biog. https://polioforever.wordpress.com/f-macfarlane-burnet/] “.. in 1931 by the Australians Frank M. Burnet and Jean Macnamara (4) [discovered] that there existed antigenic differences between strains of poliovirus…a complete similarity had been assumed.The Australian[s]..compared the famous Rockefeller MV strain with a local strain in Melbourne and found striking differences in cross-immunity experiments…The report was treated with skepticism…but in light of the ill-fated vaccine trials of 1935 [Brodie, et.al], the significance of this finding was particularly realized by Hammon, Francis and Rivers.” http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/reprint/73/6/4533
Hilary Koprowski –director of the Philadelphia Wistar Institute [see page biog.]
William McDowell Hammon –AFEB, UCBerkeley dean and Univ.of Pittsburgh Chief of Epidemiology; supervised the Gamma Globulin trials at Provo, Houston, and Sioux City between 1951 and 1952 with Joseph Stokes Jr.
Joseph E. Smadel — AFEB ; department chief at the NIH and supervisor of whistleblower Bernice Eddy who discovered SV40, simian virus, in the vaccines
William F. Scherer — AFEB; cultivated poliovirus on human cancer cells (called Hela cells)
Thomas H. Weller — AFEB; worked with John Enders cultivating poliovirus on human ‘pediatric’ tissue. Enders, Weller, and Robbins won a Nobel Prize in 1954.
Frederick Chapman Robbins – on the Enders Nobel-winning team with Weller
Alto Feller –AFEB; worked with John Enders
Morris Schaeffer — AFEB; native of the Ukraine; grad/MD from NYU http://www.nytimes.com/1997/03/25/nyregion/morris-schaeffer-89-virologist-who-tightened-controls-on-labs.html?pagewanted=1
Franklin Neva — AFEB; 1947-49 in Egypt with the Naval Medical Research Unit-3; became NIH chief of the Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases in 1969 http://www.nih.gov/catalyst/2005/05.07.01/page2.html
Gordon N. Meikeljohn — AFEB; Meikeljohn served as an official scribe for Army medical history, completing an Influenza history as the third and last director of the Commission on Influenza which was dissolved in 1973. He writes that army reports from the 50s and 60s are full of gaps, with many missing records. He describes that Commissions were heavily weighted with Rockefeller personnel, friends of Thomas Francis, and often directly funded by Rockefeller grants. Meikeljohn also points out that Francis, Salk, and team performed experiments “that we would call today as unethical”; he was personally present for some of these trials in 1943 . http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksdocs/historiesofcomsn/section2.htm
Dorothy Horstmann – research at Yale during WWII; Horstmann became Yale’s first woman professor and chair-holder; assisted Albert Sabin in the OPV Russian field trial evaluation.
Wendell M. Stanley — AFEB; joined the RIMR from 1931-1948 and founded the Virus Laboratory at UCBerkeley in 1946. In 1935, Stanley ‘crystalized’ (powdered) the Tobacco Mosaic Virus’ for fractionation and his work at the Berkeley lab was devoted to polio research. http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/biographies/MainBiographies/S/Stanley/1.html In 1954 he (and his team) accomplished crystalized poliovirus. http://www.answers.com/topic/wendell-meredith-stanley. Credit for crystallizing poliovirus went to Carlton Everett Schwerdt and his associates Howard L. Bachrach and Fred L. Schaffer, who accomplished all 3 strains by 1957.
Pierre Lepine – at the Institut Pasteur; concurrent to Jonas Salk’s IPV; [translation from French] “1950-1957 Following work of three American biologists, Enders, Weller and Robbins, which managed to cultivate the poliomyelitic virus on human embryonic cells, it becomes possible to consider the production into large virus to carry out a vaccine. Several teams stick to this task, among which those of Jonas Salk, in Pittsburgh and of P. Lépine at the Pasteur Institute. Besides the two researchers exchange confraternellement their information. In 1957, Salk and Lépine publish in a few weeks of intervals the results of their work. The two vaccines differ by the stocks employed.” http://220.127.116.11/babelfish/translate_url_content?.intl=us&lp=fr_en&trurl=https%3a%2f%2fwww.pasteur.fr%2finfosci%2farchives%2ff-bio.html ; 1951 article from Time about Parisian ‘pigeon’ flu http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,890177,00.html
Preben and Herdis Von Magnus – IPV work in Copenhagen
Mikhail P. Chumakov and (wife) M.K. Voroshilova – OPV work in Russia
The ALTERNATIVE Practitioners
Dr. Herbert M. Shelton – a founder and leader in the ‘Natural Hygiene’ movement; http://www.soilandhealth.org/02/0201hyglibcat/shelton.bio.bidwell.htm
Dr. Benjamin P. Sandler – author of “Diet Prevents Polio”; listed in the ‘Soil and Health’ bibliography along with Dr. Shelton and other natural health practitioners http://www.soilandhealth.org/02/0201hyglibcat/0201hyglibcat.html
Dr. John Toomey
Dr. Morton S. Biskind – gave ‘Pesticide cause of polio’ testimony to the US Congress 1951-
Dr. Ralph R. Scobey – co-presenter on ‘Pesticide cause’ to the Congress; authored “The Poison Causes of Poliomyelitis and Obstructions To It’s Investigation” http://www.whale.to/a/scobey2.html In vol71, 1954 Science magazine, Dr. Scobey said, “There is much evidence to indicate that the poliomyelitis virus is synthesized or activated within the human body instead of entering it as commonly assumed.”