Polioforever's Blog

Jonas Salk

  Jonas Salk (1914-1995)  Papers at Univ. of California San Diego


Jonas Salk was born on October 28, 1914 to Russian Jewish immigrants Daniel and Dora Salk and grew up in the Bronx, NYC, entering highschool at age 12 and college at 15  — the City College of New York, a hotspot for Marxist agitation. In 1939 he received an MD from New York University and completed his internship at Mount Sinai Hospital in 1942.
 Salk followed his mentor, Thomas Francis Jr (formerly of the Rockefeller Institute hospital) to the University of Michigan where Francis was made Dean of the School of Public Health as an officer of the Army Epidemiological Board (AFEB). At Michigan, Francis and Salk worked on producing an influenza vaccine for the Army which was tested throughout 1943 in experiments described as “unethical today”. Funding for the influenza vaccine was paid for by the March of Dimes. Part of Salk’s AFEB wartime duties was to serve as a consultant to the Secretary of War, Henry Stimson and (Asst. Sec) John Jay McCloy who became an initiating chairman of the Salk Institute.
   In 1947,  a laboratory was arranged for Salk at the University of Pittsburgh under the Department of Epidemiology headed by William McDowell Hammon (AFEB) who ran the polio gamma globulin trials in 1951 Provo, Utah https://polioforever.wordpress.com/provo-utah/ . Salk  tested vaccines in 1951 for influenza at Fort Dix and Fort Custer, and voyaged in September to Copenhagen on the Queen Mary for the Second International Conference on Poliomyelitis. Onboard, Salk and Basil O’Connor struck up a friendship that remained close until O’Connor’s death. Basil O’Connor had been FDR’s Wall St. law partner and served as the autocratic chairman of the March of Dimes.
“Salk had come to the University of Pittsburgh in 1947 to head its virology laboratory, part of an ambitious steeple-building program launched by the University’s new dean of Medicine, William McElroy. The medical school had bold plans but few resources, and Salk quickly discovered that his laboratory would be a bootstrap operation. Befitting a self-made man, Salk embraced the blue-collar science so central to developing successful vaccines. From his basement empire in the Municipal Hospital for Contagious Diseases, in space cobbled together from the abandoned wards, an old morgue, and other unclaimed real estate, Salk built one of the best-funded and most respected laboratories of its kind.
…It was a ‘factory’ as one technician described it…though ‘monkey business’ would have been equally accurate (given the 500-member colony essential to the typing studies). Salk’s laboratory was strictly business: no seminars, no brown bag lunches, and little mentoring. It was an autocratic organization whose boss “would speak to us through a wall of notes and memos” and often take more credit than his associates considered appropriate. But even if the pace was considered punishing, Salk’s laboratory got the job done, and ahead of its rivals.” http://ohst.berkeley.edu/publications/HSNSmodel.pdf
“In 1952, Salk believed that he had, in fact, developed a successful polio vaccine using dead viruses and the only way to judge its success was to begin human tests. The first experiments were done on children who lived in the D. T. Watson Home for Crippled Children in Leetsdale, Pennsylvania; these children had already had polio”…http://www.users.muohio.edu/shermalw/honors_2001_Fall/honors_papers_2000/threlkeld_salk3.htmlx
   Salk inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) field trials began in 1953 on a small-scale and ran continuously for two years in three countries; U.S., Canada and Finland involving over 1,800,000 children and 300,000 support personnel. On April 12, 1955, Thomas Francis announced a successful evaluation (the Francis Report) and Jonas Salk became an instant world-wide celebrity hero. His dream of directing a research institute was granted in 1959 with the promise of a facility on the northern coast of San Diego, California, nestled between the new campus of the University of California SD (UCSD) and the Pacific, in the community of La Jolla.  The Salk Institute for Biological Studies opened in 1962, serving as an important research partner in the government based ‘private’ complex of UCSD, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, and General Atomics, all within walking distance, and includes today a number of medical facilites of which the San Diego VA Hospital is one.
   Roger Revelle (Scripps) played an instrumental role in bringing Salk to La Jolla, capitalizing on Salk’s hero-stature to help break a local ‘anti-Jewish’ real estate covenant that made it difficult for incoming academics to buy property in the neighborhood. http://www.antibiaslaw.com/biblio/stratthaus.pdf and http://escholarship.org/uc/item/3nz739nf
Jonas Salk co-founded a New Age religious organization with Barbara Marx Hubbard called “Epoch B”; http://www.evolve.org and http://www.BarbaraMarxHubbard.com . Marx Hubbard believed in the necessity of killing off the “unevolving” http://www.lighthousetrailsresearch.com/marxhubbard.htm . A presumable fan of Marx Hubbard describes her as “a true evolutionary mystic, who experiences the 13.7 billion year process of creation as alive within herself.” http://beyondawakeningseries.com/blog/general/barbara-marx-hubbard/
   Marx Hubbard described it differently in an interview with Jeffrey Mishlove: “[Mishlove] You have five children. [Marx Hubbard]..”but I really wasn’t innately a mother… actually I was miserable… I was dying inside. And then I read [Abraham] Maslow and I realized my problem was I had not found my vocation… When I found it, the most important thing that happened to me was to find one other person who fully got it. And I happened to meet a man called Dr. Jonas Salk… I wrote him a letter about certain things –a theater of the future… And he had an idea about a theater of man, to dramatize human evolution as learned through biology…and he wanted to do it at the Salk Institute… One day Jonas Salk called me up..and he said, ‘You have stated my dream. I’d like to take you to lunch…and he took me to lunch in New York and I’ll never forget it…” http://www.intuition.org/txt/hubbard1.htm
Salk and his Institute fellows were purveyors of “metabiology” and philosophy –see the Salk Institute page.
[from Jonas Salk Papers, linked above] “In the early 1970s Dr. Salk began writing extensively on the subject of human evolution and the potential of mankind. Some of these writings appeared in two books: MAN UNFOLDING (1972) and THE SURVIVAL OF THE WISEST (1973). In the latter book, Dr. Salk discussed his theory of metabiology — a theory that relates to man’s potential for transcending the ordinary limits of living matter. He theorized that Mankind was on the threshold of a new era — Epoch B — in which a new form of human consciousness might prevail. Such a consciousness would, he felt, enable mankind to draw upon imagination and intellect for overcoming the serious physical challenges to survival that have arisen in the modern era. Dr. Salk further expanded his ideas in the book WORLD POPULATION AND HUMAN VALUES (1981), written in collaboration with his son Jonathan, and in his most recent book ANATOMY OF REALITY: MERGING OF INTUITION AND REASON (1983).” [excerpted from the UCSD page]
On May 6, 1985, President Ronald Reagan declared it to be “Jonas Salk Day”
The Pittsburgh School of Health was endowed by the Mellon and Scaife families with former Surgeon General Thomas Parran as its first dean. Parran recruited William McDowell Hammon from Berkeley to head the Dept of Epidemiology. [Hammon biography on page Provo Utah]. The Scaife/Mellon families also funded and direct the Heritage Foundation think tank.
William D. McElroy, dean of Medicine at the time of Salk’s arrival http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_D._McElroy
Through the Sarah Mellon Scaife Foundation, Salk secured a $12,500 grant to renovate a forty-by-forty-foot space in the basement of Municipal Hospital. Coupled with the funding he had from the army to continue a long-term influenza study at Fort Dix, New Jersey, he now had enough money to get by.” [p 108, Patenting The Sun]
Salk’s directorships:
Save The Children
The Dreyfus Fund
Epoch B Foundation
Jonas Salk Foundation, est. 1986
Jonas Salk and Kevin Kimberlin cofounded The Immune Response Corporation in 1986, patenting the HIV therapy drug ‘Remune’ http://www.aidsmeds.com/archive/Remune_1644.shtml
Salk marriages:
— first wife: Donna Lindsay, divorced in 1968; Salk met Lindsay at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute during his summer’s work at the marine lab.
3 sons
 eldest son –  Peter L. Salk (b.1944), graduate of Harvard and Johns Hopkins; AIDS research http://www.polio.pitt.edu/speakers/salk.htm
 Darrell J. Salk (b.1947), pediatrician; faculty of University of Washington in Seattle; honorary trustee of the Watson Institute http://www.thewatsoninstitute.org/about.jsp ; Vice President for Clinical Affairs of Targeted Genetics Corp. http://www.targen.com/About_Us.htm
Jonathan D. Salk (b.1949), married to Elizabeth Shepherd; graduate of USC; professor at UCLA;  practices psychiatry and psychosomatic medicine
 **second wife: Francoise Gilot, companion of Pablo Picasso, mother of  Claude and Paloma Picasso; wrote a bestseller on her life with Picasso  http://legacy.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20041221/news_1c21stiff.html
Dr. Lee Salk, Jonas Salk’s brother, married to Mary Jane Salk
daughter, Dr. Pia Salk
Dr. Herman Salk, brother; veterinarian and animal supplier “[from] nearby Shalom Farm, where Salk had arranged for his brother Herman to begin a business as a supplier of laboratory animals on a property owned by a Pittsburgh lawyer who had become a friend of the family.” [p191, Patenting The Sun]
Author of books:
Man Unfolding (1972, non-fiction)
The Survival of the Wisest (1973, non-fiction)
How Like an Angel : Biology and the Nature of Man (1975)
World Population and Human Values : A New Reality (1981, non-fiction)
Anatomy of Reality : Merging of Intuition and Reason (1982, non-fiction)
Dora (Press) and Daniel Salk, seated
Standing, left to right, Herman, wife Donna, Jonas, and Lee
 May 1959
David Ben Gurion speaks with Salk in Jerusalem. http://www.answers.com/topic/david-ben-gurion
Several months later, architect Louis Kahn and Jonas Salk began the formal plans for the Salk Institute
“Daniel Salk manufactured and designed women’s clothing and was often not at home during the hours when Jonas and his brothers were awake; therefore, his father did not play a major role or have a lasting impact on Jonas’ life. His mother, on the other hand, was a forceful woman and “felt it her duty to make her presence felt in the world through her sons” (Carter 29). This desire caused Dora Salk to become a devoted homemaker and mother, despite the long hours she spent each day working in the garment district of New York City. She was so set on driving her children to greatness that she began reading to her sons and lecturing them on the pitfalls of self-indulgence even before they could hold their heads up on their own. This endless instruction throughout early childhood lead to an early breakthrough; Salk’s first spoken words were “dirt, dirt,” rather than the conventional and uninspired “no, no” or “Mama.” Although tiring at times, the Salk children no doubt benefited from their parents’ example and from the emphasis on family life and education that was seated in their strong Jewish background.   A shy boy, Salk found a safe haven in his books; he wore glasses for nearsightedness and was hardly spotted without reading material in his hand. It was not enough for Dora Salk that Jonas was bright and responsible, she felt that he should be subject to more exceptional stimuli than the other children in the neighborhood. She gave Jonas daily lessons in perfection and held him to ever-changing standards. “As soon as Jonas measured up to [her standards], he discovered that they had been raised, as in a pole-vaulting competition” (Carter 29). http://www.users.muohio.edu/shermalw/honors_2001_Fall/honors_papers_2000/threlkeld_salk3.htmlx

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