What Science Learned at Bikini
Fate of the Marshall Islanders
Statement from Lewis L. Strauss, chief of the AEC
Weather modification for fallout control
Explosions at Fukushima Japan, March 2011
Low-Dose Danger, Radiation Injury
Fallout Effects and fallout map links
Fallout in Milk — fallout in baby teeth
The Story of Three Mile Island
The Battle of Chernobyl
Fallout from weapons –excerpts from the 1960 book Fallout, editor John M. Fowler
“..The U.S. nuclear weapon testing task force returned to Bikini for the 1954 Castle series [H-bombs]. The first shot of the Castle series produced such extensive radioactive fallout that a third Marshallese group, the Rongelapese, was evacuated from its contaminated home island and relocated for several years. After Castle Bravo the Marshall islanders petitioned the United Nations to stop the nuclear testing in their territory or, if the testing was essential, to exercise all precautions to safeguard the inhabitants and their possessions. The U.S. continued to test at Bikini and Enewetak in 1954, 1956, and 1958. By October 31, 1958, the U.S. had tested 66 nuclear devices in the Marshall Islands since 1946.” http://www.hss.energy.gov/HealthSafety/IHS/marshall/marsh/; But it didn’t end there. The Marshallese were again required to surrender for Star Wars ballistics tests, fired on them from California.
“Moving the people of Rongelap was to be the last act in the Rainbow Warrior’s remarkable history. After leaving the Marshalls..she was sunk by a French secret service limpet mine in Auckland Harbour before she could reach the South Pacific atoll of Moruroa and begin disrupting French nuclear tests there.” [p69] …there is as much thyroid cancer at Utrik as at Rongelap… A remarkable number of people..have cataracts… The Marshall Islands has the highest rate of diabetes in the world…[pp46-47]
According to his memoirs, the BRAVO test “demonstration of power” was the only Pacific blast that AEC Chairman Strauss excursioned to witness live. Over the next three months, his efforts were absorbed by the surveillance and prosecution of the Oppenheimer security hearings, focused on the scientist’s perveived obstruction in the building of H-bombs.
“Willard Libby, a famed chemist and new member of the AEC [promoted up from the advisory board, GAC], insisted that “there is no immediate hazard to the civilian population.”[from fallout]. Privately..Libby told his colleagues on the commission that fallout was just a fact of life that people would have to learn to live with; chairman Strauss retorted that it was all right “if you don’t live next door to it”—“or under it” added general manager Kenneth Nichols.” http://spot.colorado.edu/~chernus/Research/Apocalypse%20Management%20text/Chapter6.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willard_Libby
Feb.2, 1955 – “On this day Atomic Energy Commission Chairman Lewis Strauss had given Eisenhower a proposed public announcement regarding the anticipated effects of fallout from thermonuclear explosions. The statement was designed to inform the American public of the “nature and extent of the dangers of nuclear attack and of the protective measures that can be taken by individuals and communities to avoid or minimize those dangers. (Goodpaster, Memorandum for Record, Feb.2, 1955..; New York Times, Feb.16, 1955..)…Several days later Eisenhower would say that “instinctively he felt what was going to be said was in error” and that he would prefer “a calm practical statement” (Ann Whitman memorandum, Feb. 7, 1955..)” http://www.eisenhowermemorial.org/presidential-papers/first-term/documents/1282.cfm
New York Times, Feb24, 1955; “This year, for the first time, the public is getting virtually the full publishable story from officials about the Nevada atomic tests…” (stub) http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F00C17FB3E58107A93C6AB1789D85F418585F9
—To this day, the public has not gotten the full story, virtual, publishable or not. Strauss was evidently crafting his ‘legacy papers’: “Most Americans had forgotten, the most knowledgeable among them choosing to forget, that it was Khrushchev who had first proposed negotiations on a test ban, in February 1955. This was after the discovery that the fallout from an American test in March 1954 –not the bomb but the radioactive debris carried in the atmosphere– had killed or maimed Japanese fishermen and islanders hundreds of miles from the test site on Bikini Atoll.” [p121, President Kennedy, by Richard Reeves]
Continuous fallout detection became a US military priority after the 1946 test series Operation Crossroads. By 1948, a system of seismic, acoustic, and aerial sampling was a regular feature of activity involving all branches of the services and extensive civilian facilities, especially at university laboratories. The Air Force dispatched relay sorties that operated a bi-weekly ‘circuit’ of the northern hemisphere –this method of sampling detected the Soviet’s first test in August of 1949 with great accuracy. The aerial ‘filters’ which were changed on schedule within geophysical coordinates allowed US scientists to determine the type, chemistry, and location of the Soviet test. High altitude “weather” balloons were also part of the fallout-detection program, which only expanded it’s range and sophistication after the ’49 experience.
In 1947, Dr. Irving Langmuir initiated the first large-scale weather modification experiments, which were partly incorporated into the US Air Force as Project Cirrus. In 1950, Langmuir also tested burning silver-iodide from the ground in Socorro, New Mexico. Edward Teller wrote in his Memoirs, “In 1947, Langmuir was mostly interested in talking about cloud seeding; he talked so much about the amount of damage done by a storm his seeding had caused that I began to wonder whether he saw the technique as competition to the atomic bomb.” [p253, Memoirs, Edward Teller] Conveniently, Irving Langmuir’s brother Dean, a ‘Morgan’ and Lazard Freres banker, was in the Bureau of Aircraft Production. Project Cirrus is generally referred to as a failure that ended in 1952, however, the limited records of operation continue until 1957 when peak fallout was achieved (Operation Plumbob) and then disappear. Langmuir also passed away. Weather modification during the ’50s seems likely to have been used for fallout control. 1954 and ’55 in the US were record-setting flood years –1955 was also the first year of domestic H-bomb tests and polio vaccine. http://www.smokershistory.com/lazard.htm#Dean_Langmuir; here’s a retelling of Langmuir’s experiments http://www.airspacemag.com/history-of-flight/Climate-Control.html?c=y&page=1
Irving Langmuir (1881-1957), graduate of Columbia University’s School of Mines as an engineer of Metallurgy and then earning a PhD in Chemistry, worked for General Electric from 1909 to 1950. He studied chemical bonding, atomic structure and ionized gases, coining the word ‘plasma’. In 1932 Langmuir won a Nobel Prize. His nephew, Alexander Langmuir, became a famed epidemiologist, advancing from Deputy Commissioner of Health of Westchester County, New York, to founding the Epidemic Intelligence Service of the CDC in 1951. http://www.gifnet.org/articles/Langmuir%20&%20Atomic%20Hydrogen.pdf
September 5, 1961 — “In view of the continued testing by the Soviet Government, I have today ordered the resumption of nuclear tests, in the laboratory and underground, with no fallout,” President Kennedy announced.. six days after the first [moratorium-breaching] Soviet test… There was no scientific or military reason for the United States to test until early 1962 or even into 1963… But there were political reasons now. In the six days, the Soviets exploded two more hydrogen bombs..into the atmosphere above Siberia. Some of Kennedy’s men..tried to talk Kennedy out of matching the Soviet testing. The United States, they argued briefly, could score a propaganda victory around the world by not testing now. But he was under much greater pressure to resume testing from the Joint Chiefs of Staff, from Congress, from the Atomic Energy Commission –and from the American people… Personally, Kennedy did not want to resume testing. In meetings with scientists, he asked fewer questions about megatonnage than about radioactive fallout, ‘Where would we be if testing had continued at the 1958 rate?’ he asked Dr. Charles Dunham, director of the Atomic Energy Commission’s Division of Biology and Medicine. ‘Civilized man would have been in trouble,’ Dunham said. ‘How does the radioactive fallout get to the earth?’ [JFK] asked his science adviser, Jerome Wiesner. ‘The clouds are washed out by rain,’ answered Wiesner. Kennedy looked out through the French doors into the garden. It was a rainy day and he asked: ‘You mean it’s in the rain out there?’ ‘Yes’, Wiesner said. He stood, awkwardly, waiting. Kennedy did not speak for a long time.” [pp 226-227, President Kennedy, by Richard Reeves]
>>>polioforever: all underground nuclear tests released radiation into the atmosphere although those facts have been scrubbed from the public-access records. Remnants, however, exist in old news clippings and memoirs, such as this http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20615F93B5C1A7493C4AB178AD95F458785F9
Jerome Wiesner, 13th president of M.I.T
Radiation and air-borne chemical pollution of all types including X-rays, from all sources, is considered fallout. A newer technology of Terahertz (THz, trillion hertz) microwaves in the far-infrared range (magnetic, as opposed to electro-magnetic) , used in radioastronomy, is the next radiation hazard to people now being applied in airport body scans: http://www.technologyreview.com/blog/arxiv/24331/; bodily-cellular injury from electromagnetism is here: https://polioforever.wordpress.com/electromagnetism/
The authors of “Deadly Deceit: Low Level Radiation, High Level Coverup” estimate the era of atmospheric testing was equivalent in fallout to the detonation of 40,000 Hiroshima-sized bombs. http://www.multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/issues/1990/06/review.html
This is fallout…..
March 11, 2011 — “TOKYO – Japan declared states of emergency for five nuclear reactors at two power plants after the units lost cooling ability in the aftermath of Friday’s powerful earthquake. Thousands of residents were evacuated as workers struggled to get the reactors under control to prevent meltdowns… A single reactor in northeastern Japan had been the focus of much of the concern in the initial hours after the 8.9 magnitude quake, but the government declared new states of emergency at four other reactors in the area Saturday morning… Authorities said radiation levels had jumped 1,000 times normal inside Unit 1 and were measured at eight times normal outside the plant…” http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/as_japan_quake_power_plant . Compare what happened at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl –in both cases, meltdowns were denied. The Chernobyl explosion was unavoidably obvious, however, Three Mile Island’s reactor status was unknown for many years while regular ventings released pressure and dispersed a wide pattern of radioactive fallout. Scroll down the page to read about TMI. Updated information about the Fukushima fallout is here http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2011/03/12/the-fallout-is-coming/
Southern California: In 1959, the purportedly worst nuclear accident in US history, a partial meltdown, took place at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL), just outside Los Angeles; “In July, 1959, the site suffered a partial nuclear meltdown that has been named “the worst in U.S. history”, releasing an undisclosed amount of radiation, but thought to be much more than the Three Mile Island disaster in 1979… The reactors located on the grounds of SSFL were considered experimental, and therefore had no containment structures… In October 2006, the Santa Susana Field Laboratory Advisory Panel.. concluded that the SRE meltdown caused the release of more than 458 times the amount of radiation released by the Three Mile Island accident.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Susana_Field_Laboratory
Here is a magazine article from July 1959 on the state of public fallout disclosure: “..among scientists at the [Congressional] hearings..everyone..was willing to agree that it was coming down much faster than had been expected..” [p.19 on doc] http://www.unz.org/Pub/Reporter-1959jul09-00017
Western Pennsylvania: “NUMEC Used Apollo, Parks as Guinea Pigs” [headline, Aug.28,2002]– “If you lived near the former NUMEC nuclear fuel plants in Apollo and Parks in the 1960s, you were part of studies to determine how much nuclear fallout was safe for humans. You just didn’t know it. And neither may have the workers inside the plants, who were studied to see just how much radiation the human body could absorb… But what were the results of the tests?… The extent of the tests will most likely stay unknown… ‘Private contractor sites like NUMEC fell off the map’ said [Dan] Guttman… results of the ongoing [lifetime] study are not available” http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/valleynewsdispatch/s_88353.html [cited on page www.polioforever.wordpress.com/dr-marys-monkey/ ]
>>>polioforever: the NUMEC plant operations are implicated in the JFK assassination conspiracy as a source of bomb-grade weapons fuel smuggled to Israel (see the Dr. Mary’s Monkey link above)
CHEMTRAILS – the field of Health Physics developed for the Atomic Energy program taught the authorities everything they needed to know about fallout and ‘uptake’, exhaustively studied ad nauseum. It is not possible that ignorance of biological damage caused by chemtrails is valid http://www.californiaskywatch.com/. Nanoparticulates, metals and synthetic ingredients in the atmosphere and food chain describe the components of semi-conductors, ‘soft machines’ and engineered lifeforms.
The field of Health Physics, created in 1947 www.polioforever.wordpress.com/health-physics/ determined a need for “large population surveys” to study radiological hazard effects.
In 1972, Canadian nuclear researcher Abram Petkau published the results of his work studying the effects of ‘low dose’ radiation. The ‘Petkau’ effect describes a non-linear relationship, what’s called a “paradoxical dose response”. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petkau_effect Petkau observed that small doses over longer time, such as fallout, were much more damaging and that substances like fluoride (and other halogen compounds) have similar non-linear effects. [Dr. Albert Schatz on fluoride: http://www.fluoridation.com/schatz.htm] www.polioforever.wordpress.com/fluoride/
In 1979, Dr. John Gofman, former Manhattan Project scientist from Berkeley,CA and expert on the biological effects of radiation stated, “I feel that at least several hundred scientists trained in the biomedical aspect of atomic energy –myself included– are candidates for Nuremberg-type trials for crimes against humanity for our gross negligence and irresponsibility. Now that we know the hazard of low-dose radiation, the crime is not experimentation– it’s murder.” www.ratical.org
Three Mile Island, 1979 “partial” meltdown; five days later, the worst known anthrax contamination in history occurred in Sverdlovsk, USSR as the fallout cloud reached the Soviets. The event is regarded as an intentional biowarfare release. Significantly the “last cases of wild polio in the United States” occured after TMI in a community of mid-west Amish. Scroll down for more reading to The Story of Three Mile Island. Significantly, the Soviet anthrax event was studied by Salk Institute personnel.
The April 1986 Chernobyl accident provided ‘cover’ for the US to secretly vent the radiation from the “Mighty Oak” underground test at NTS.
>>>Coincidence? In mid-April of 1986 the U.S. led an attack on Libya. Approximately 12 days later the reactor at Chernobyl exploded and news about Libya disappeared. In March of 2011, the accident at Fukushima Daiichi was followed approx. 12 days later by a U.S. led attack on Libya, and the news about Fukushima disappeared.
“Radiation definitely ages the population so that it dies off from all causes at earlier ages than it otherwise would…[p85] …life-shortening now appears to be the major deleterious effect of fallout..” –Walter R. Guild [p91 Fallout, published 1960, editor J.M. Fowler]
Radiation Effects Literature
March, 1957 “The Nuclear Radiation Handbook”, report by Nuclear Development Corporation of America, White Plains, NY [military document in the National Security Archive]
1957 “The Nature of Radioactive Fallout and It’s Effects on Man”, 2 volumes, presented to Congress May/June
“Medical Consequences of Nuclear Warfare”, Part 1, Vol 2 in the Textbook of Military Medicine series http://www.afrri.usuhs.mil/outreach/pdf/tmm/chapter7/chapter7.pdf
Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues
>>ATTENTION readers, Feb. 18, 2010 –Fallout “cloud track” maps, (above and elsewhere on this site) are DISAPPEARING from the INTERNET! and may no longer be accessible by links with the ‘wayback machine’. Scanned copies will eventually be entered here if maps disappear. [stand-by]
Maps, dose estimates, documents, websites and resources:
Depleted Uranium : http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia/ciencia_uranium04.htm
Radon gas: http://www.radonseal.com/radon-facts.htm
Rad Waste : see this must watch documentary ”Waste: The Nuclear Nightmare” http://123nonstop.com/watch_online_movie_video/Waste:_The_Nuclear_Nightmare
Yucca Mountain Project http://www.yuccamountain.org/; nuclear waste is a complex subject involving the complete fuel cycle of power production from mining to end storage, radioactive products manufacture, fertilizer, medical waste, reclamation, and illegal dumping, recycling and neglect. The lawful disposal of rad waste can be reviewed here:http://www.radwaste.org/disposal.htm
[March 2011] “Utah has long been the destination for all but a small percentage of the radioactive waste that’s disposed of in the nation’s three commercial landfills. But that could change soon..” http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/home/50983582-76/waste-texas-disposal-radioactive.html.csp
“The largest program at ORNL [Oak Ridge Nat’l Lab] focusing on partitioning and transmutation is investigating methods for accelerator transmutation of wastes (ATW). Conceived by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory, ATW uses a linear accelerator system to produce neutrons for transmutation of excess weapons plutonium and other radioactive DOE wastes…” http://www.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/rev26-2/text/radside1.html; this is a plan to restore and recycle waste into fuel and other materials.
“Native communities, primarily in the western US, have been chronically exposed to low doses of radiation.. from the many nuclear activities on indigenous lands such as uranium mining and milling, uranium conversion and enrichment, and testing of nuclear weapons. More than one half of all US uranium deposits lie under reservation land. [The] long-term use of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located on traditional Shoshone land, the Western Shoshone nation has become known as the most bombed nation on earth. The 928 American and 19 British nuclear explosions in Newe Sogobia have been classified by the Western Shoshone National Council (WSNC) as bombs rather than “tests.” …But no treaty, agreement, vote or sale exists that give the US permission to explode nuclear bombs on or under the Western Shoshone Nation.” http://www.russellmeansfreedom.com/2010/native-americans-bear-the-nuclear-burden/
<<>>DoE ‘Openess’ Roadmap Project http://www.hhs.energy.gov/healthsafety/ohre/roadmap/achre/intro_3.htm, “We reveal the perhaps surprising finding that officials and experts in the highest reaches of the AEC and DoD discussed requirements for human experiments in the first years of the Cold War”.
Robley Evans, of CalTech and MIT, did Radium ingestion studies and extensive follow-up in the case of the Radium Dial Painters (late 1920s). During the Manhattan Project, Evans was in charge of radioactive material transport which included secret brown-box shipments to Dr. Stafford Warren at the Univ. of Rochester, NY, that were sprayed on the campus grounds at night by Drs. Warren and Harold Hodge (see Fluoride).
http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/radiation/dir/mstreet/commeet/meet9/brief9/tab_i/br9i2.txt (from the National Security Archive)..”secret medical research reports; (2) indicate that reports on human experiments, including the plutonium injections, were initially declassified but reclassified for fear of public and legal
consequences of disclosure; (3) show that continued secrecy was a policy judgment by the highest AEC medical authorities (the Division
of Biology and Medicine and its Advisory Committee)”…
National Security Archives (word search only) http://gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/. Documents can be searched for with phrases.
Maps : Northeast US from Pennsylvania to Maine http://twosixtypress.com/gallery-35.htm (sourced from the U.S. Atlas of Nuclear Fallout, below)
The Nevada Proving Grounds opened with the first detonations in January of 1951, Operation Ranger. On May 11, 1951 Science magazine published an article by W.W. Meinke on the radioactive snow observed in Ann Arbor, Michigan — http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/refs/113/2941/545?ck=nck
Maps 1951 Operation Buster–Jangle http://web.archive.org/web/20080620044321/http://www.aracnet.com/~pdxavets/bustdoc.htm; the Provo Utah vaccine trials with gamma globulin were run in concert with Buster-Jangle
Maps 1952 Operation Tumbler –Snapper http://web.archive.org/web/20071109092800/www.aracnet.com/~pdxavets/tumdoc.htm
Maps 1955 Operation Teapot http://web.archive.org/web/20071108081926/http://www.aracnet.com/~pdxavets/teadoc.htm
Map 1957 Operation Plumbob: composite for iodine 131 deposition http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Usa/Tests/Pbscd.gif; fallout cloud tracking maps http://www.aracnet.com/~histgaz/atomi/fallout.htm
http://www.ratical.org/ , statements, oral histories
Dr. Rosalie Bertell http://www.ccnr.org/bertell_book.html
Dr. John W. Gofman http://www.ratical.org/radiation/CNR/JWGcv.html
Ernest Sternglass “Secret Fallout” http://www.ratical.org/radiation/inetSeries/index.html#ES
US Radiation Sites http://www.prop1.org/prop1/radiated/states.htm
researcher Richard L. Miller composed the 5-volume set http://web.archive.org/web/20051103165641/www.kued.org/avoidingarmageddon/miller-story.html
The ACERER, Advisory Committee for Energy-Related Epidemiological Research, advises the US Dept of Health and Human Services on radiation research http://www.cdc.gov/NCEH/radiation/fallout/feasibilitystudy/Appendix_I-3_Workshop_Summary.pdf
http://www.netti.fi/~makako/mind/radiatio.htm ……….events leading to the 1994 disclosure of secret radiation experiments on US citizens……..
“The Clinton administration’s first halting step toward taking responsibility for past government misdeeds occurred on Pearl Harbor Day 1993, when DoE Secretary Hazel O’Leary confirmed that the AEC, her agency’s predecessor, had sponsored experiments in which hundreds of Americans were exposed to radioactive material, often without their consent. …………….Top DoE aide Dan Reicher pulled O’Leary out of a meeting last November just before the story broke to warn her that People were injected with plutonium back in the 1940s, and there’s a newspaper in New Mexico that’s about to lay out the whole thing. O’Leary provided information about experiments at major universities, including MIT, the University of Chicago, California, and Vanderbilt. Experimenters exposed about 2,000 Americans to varying degrees of radiation. These numbers may grow as more information about experiments is released.
…”When O’Leary confirmed the human experiments, she also revealed two other important activities. First, she admitted her agency had secretly conducted 204 underground nuclear tests in Nevada from 1963-1990. These clandestine blasts were in addition to the 800-plus nuclear tests publicly announced during that period. DoE’s secrecy may have deceived only Congress and the U.S. public. In 1990, the Soviet Union’s minister for atomic energy produced an estimate of U.S. detonations that was very close to the actual number including the secret ones.”
“O’Leary’s other significant disclosure concerned DoE’s massive stock of weapons-grade plutonium: 33.5 metric tons of stockpiled plutonium and another 55.5 metric tons deployed in nuclear warheads and for similar uses. *6 This admission calls into question DoE’s past claims that national security required the continued operation of unsafe plutonium processing plants to produce unnecessary stockpiles of plutonium……..O’Leary’s disclosures about the human experiments have produced a torrent of publicity. Much less attention has been paid to her admissions about secret nuclear tests and plutonium stocks, which have much greater long-term implications for nuclear weapons policy.”
DOWN THE MEMORY HOLE
“O’Leary’s promises of full disclosure by DoE aside, one well-placed source within the agency suggested that the Pentagon, NASA and the CIA were just going through the motions. For example, the CIA announced in January 1994 that after searching its files it could locate only one reference to human experimentation with radiation. Former CIA official Scott Breckenridge charged that in 1973, Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, chief of the chemical division of the CIA’s Technical Services Division, may have destroyed many secret files, including those on human radiation experiments………The history of partial revelation and near complete inaction is long. In 1975, the Rockefeller Commission first revealed that the CIA may have conducted radiation experiments, but the records if not destroyed have yet to be uncovered. William Colby, CIA director from 1973 to 1975, recently said, I recall the various drug tests, which were scandalous, but nothing about radiation. So far, the institutional memories of the implicated agencies appear to be as conveniently spotty as Colby’s.”
“While officials have dallied, dedicated reporters, angry victims, and a handful of government whistleblowers have exposed a pattern of secrecy and deception. A brief sampling of some of the macabre, secret human experiments uncovered by Welsome and others is chilling”……..
FALLOUT in Milk: milk was considered the best local/regional indicator of fallout levels as it was generally produced and consumed in the same region while plant foods (feed, grain, fruits & vegs) were widely shipped.
Utah Division of Radiation Control http://www.radiationcontrol.utah.gov/fallout.htm
The Story of Three Mile Island
It took over 15 years for the authorities and engineers to assess the damage to the TMI reactor (1979-1994), and there is where the story closes. Over 20 tons of molten material pooled at the bottom of the containment vessel, which was unknown until 1987. More than one year after the accident, in June of 1980, radioactive krypton gas had to be vented from the reactor building. The threat of explosion loomed over the clean-up project and it must be supposed that regular ventings occurred, although as this sanitized telling of ‘history’ indicates, most of the “vast amount of documentation of the accident, the crisis, and the clean-up” disappeared. ( http://americanhistory.si.edu/tmi/tmi08.htm ). General Public Utilities, the reactor’s operating company, went out of business. In 1994, revelations about secret weapons tests and human experimentation that broke in the newspapers trumped the TMI clean-up, a process that was really just beginning. The ‘accident’ timeline begins here http://americanhistory.si.edu/tmi/tmi03.htm .
No account has been made of the ‘venting’ that began in the summer of 1980, or sooner. In 1982, when attempts were again made to enter the reactor building, the concern over a possible explosion is palpably described. An admission of venting by the TMI museum pertains to two events only but the local people who experienced it and followed the news in their hometown papers had something to tell, and it’s a story cut short to fit the framework of time. In 1983, the avian influenza in Pennsylvania and beyond was reaching such a crisis that a series of Congressional hearings ensued, and for how long is not known:
Daily Digest – Thursday, January 26, 1984; pages D12 – D16 (Bound vol.)Committee Meetings
Committee on Appropriations: Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development,
and Related Agencies concluded oversight hearings to review the status of the
avian influenza problem that is impacting the poultry industry in several
Eastern states, after receiving testimony from Senators Heinz and Warner; C.
W. McMillan, Assistant Secretary for Marketing and Inspection, James H.
Johnson, Deputy Under Secretary for Small Community and Rural Development,
Charles W. Beard, Director, Southeastern Poultry Research Laboratory, and Bert
W. Hawkins, Administrator, John K. Atwell, Deputy Administrator for Veterinary
Services, E. C. Sharman, Assistant Deputy Administrator for Veterinary
Services, Animal Health Programs, and Sam Ladd, Director, Budget and
Accounting Division, all of the Animal Plant and Health Inspection Services,
all of the Department of Agriculture; Andrew Hansen and Donald Horn, both of
the Task Force on Avian Influenza, Penrose Hollawell, Pennsylvania Department
of Agriculture, and Jim Aurand, Pennsylvania Grange, all of Harrisburg,
Pennsylvania; Charles Warfel, Pennsylvania Farmers Association, Camp Hill; and
Albert E. Pope, United Egg Producers, Decatur, Georgia.
Three Mile Island: The People’s Testament , Aileen M. Smith March 27, 1989 http://www.tmia.com/node/118
“In the summer of 1979, three months after the Three Mile Island accident, a party of five concerned Japanese traveled to Central Pennsylvania to study the incident and its aftermath first hand. It was a personal trip for the two lawyers, a student, a radiation research scientist, and Mitsuru Katagiri, university professor and my husband-to-be. When Mitsuru returned home to Kyoto, he confessed that before he left Japan he thought he had basically understood the accident — a barely averted meltdown catastrophe that quite fortunately had probably released only an insignificant amount of radiation. But as they toured the area, he was surprised by the number of people who reported anomalous occurrences during and after the time of the accident; strange tastes and smells; burning, tingling or reddening of the skin; and changes in the local vegetation, animals and atmosphere. This prompted yet another trip that year.”….
Interviewees said on the day of the accident, and for the next couple of days, a powdery ash fell and collected on everything. From the first day, Wednesday March 28, a strong and nauseating metallic taste began affecting them. People and animals stumbled and fell. They felt numbness in their legs and tingling or burning, sometimes a peppery rash. Veterinarian Robert Weber reported in his recollection made in 1982, “Immediately after the accident at TMI, we had many sheep and goats that couldn’t get up. Also, we had troubles with sheep just being found dead. Goats just being found dead…through that summer of 1979.” Weber said there were high numbers of stillbirths and an inability of the pregnant animals to deliver. Local farmers often went through him and filed reports with the Agriculture bureau, only to learn later from officials that no such reports existed. By 1982, he said “Cancer is our big deal now…We are finding the cancers in the uterus, the mammary systems, the lymphatics…I see this curve”.
Betty Fawber said of her animals, “After the accident happened…we’d go up and there’d be chickens that were dead. Just one at a time. Unexplained. We had maybe about six like that…The chickens started dying like that, I’d say, maybe 6 months after the accident…I had two rabbits and one had a litter of 7 bunnies, but they were all born dead. They looked perfect but they were dead.” Betty was sensitive to the ‘venting’, as were others, developing a burning rash on her skin and in her throat and sinuses. She said,” The first year..there were about 47 times when this burning happened….45 times..we accounted [in the newspaper] that they did vent….Last year  sometime..we saw or heard that they were deliberately venting each day”…
The Battle of Chernobyl
The US DoE used the ‘cover’ of the Chernobyl accident fallout to vent underground contamination at the NTS ‘Mighty Oak’ blast http://idealist.ws/mightyoak.php
SOURCES of Fallout
Forest and Brush fires are a major source of “re-pollution” fallout, noted by the EPA accounting for only two such incidents: http://www.epa.gov/rpdweb00/rert/radiationincidents.html, and this ‘leak’ at Brookhaven :
Tritium Leak at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York –tritium is an isotope of hydrogen and a neutron emitter which can cause the elements it comes in contact with to absorb neutrons and become radioactive.
“In 1997, a major, ongoing tritium leak was discovered at Brookhaven National Laboratory, a Department of Energy 2,265-acre scientific research center located in Suffolk County, NY. The leak probably originated from the 68,000-gallon spent fuel pool within a reactor building. It had been leaking for an estimated 10–12 years. Following the initial discovery of the tritium contamination, other plumes including a cobalt-60 plume and an additional tritium plume were located.
Beginning in January, 1997, staff from EPA’s Region 2 office worked with the Department of Energy. In February, DOE committed to conduct a major cleanup effort and to meet the environmental and health standards of EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Act”