Henry Frauenthal, married to Clara Heinsheimer, and his brother Herman, married to Minnie Rothschild, opened a hospital at the Rothschild residence-turned-dispensary in 1905. It was called the Jewish Hospital on Deformities and Joint Diseases at 588 Lexington Avenue, New York City. In time, through expansion and new facilities, the Hospital for Joint Diseases (or HJD as it was known) became a busy polio center and an orthopedic surgery world leader .
“Clara’s family was well-known in the financial world — her maternal grandfather and brother were bankers with the investment firm Kuhn, Loeb & Co., and she was also related to Paul Warburg, an advocate of the Federal Reserve banking system.” http://www.greenwichtime.com/news/article/Titanic-survivors-meet-tragic-ends-3472299.php
Frauenthals married into the Rothschild, Heinsheimer, Loeb and Sloane families.
1905, residence at 588 Lexington and 50th opened as a dispensary and hospital with 7 beds; shares the laboratory at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (RIMR).
Dr. Abraham Jacobi, consulting physician and “foster father” of the hospital, is called the ‘father of pediatrics. Jacobi took part in the European communist insurrections of 1848 and ‘fled’ to New York on his release (or escape) from prison in 1853. He opened the first Children’s Clinic in the U.S. and married Dr. Mary Putnam in 1873, daughter of publisher George Putnam (Yale, Skull and Bones), famed for her contribution to polio. Jacobi was a key ally to Nathan Strauss (Sr.) in the campaign to pasteurize milk.
Within one year, the 7-bed dispensary found a new location at 1917 Madison Ave.; Henry Finkelstein joined the staff; Emanuel Gattle became the hospital president. Gattle owned a jewelry store on Park Avenue.
Louis F. Rothschild; Herman Frauenthal’s brother-in-law and Wall Street investment banker was hospital treasurer until his death.
1907 – NYC had the largest polio outbreak to date –2,500 cases and 125 deaths.
1909 – Clara Heinsheimer* was the niece of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. banker, Solomon Loeb. Her brothers Louis (Kuhn,Loeb partner) and Alfred Heinsheimer bequest endowments for the creation of the New York Foundation, est.1909. The Foundation’s first grants included the National Committee for Mental Hygiene. [The Heinsheimers were first cousins by marriage to Jacob Schiff and Paul Warburg who married the Loeb sisters, Theresa Loeb(Schiff) and Nina Loeb(Warburg). Paul Warburg and Nelson Aldrich created the Federal Reserve banking system.]
1911 – The New York Foundation gifts the Neurological Institute (Columbia Presbyterian) of New York City, headed by Charles Dana, Bernard Sachs, Pearce Bailey and Joseph Collins. (Sachs, of the immediate Goldman Sachs family, became father-in-law to Nathan Straus Jr.)
1914 – Henry Frauenthal publishes “The Manual of Infantile Paralysis” with J.Van Vliet (Manning), based on the largest case survey then known (approx 3,500). The hospital expands through building acquisitions and gives 48,000 treatments in this year. Bed capacity is 105 (1915).
1917 – the 21-yr-old Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss replaces Gattle as hospital president. (L.L. Strauss may be a close cousin to the aforementioned Strauses. Strauss became a Kuhn, Loeb & Co. junior partner in 1919, Navy intelligence career from 1925 onwards; USN officer (Rear Admiral), Atomic Energy Commissioner & AEC Chief, Rockefeller financier and one of the most powerful men of the 20th century)
1919 – $1,800,000 raised for a new hospital building from fundraising at the Reisenweber’s Club. All five Guggenheim brothers attended. Pictures from 1921, of “bloodless surgeon” Dr. Adolph Lorenz shows crowds gathered at the Hospital for Joint Diseases with the text suggesting the reason was demand for polio treatment! http://www.genealogyimagesofhistory.com
New construction began on an 8-story modern facility, opened October 5, 1924; Henry Jaffe, the ‘father of orthopedic pathology’ joined the staff; the new building has 350 beds plus 100 private rooms, considered the “best in the world” with an X-ray (top) floor and a “patient school” run by the NYC Department of Education.
1925 – surgeries rose from 599 in 1924 to 2,017 in 1925. 20,057 new patients are treated at the dispensary. Alfred M. Heinsheimer (deceased) bequeathed a 14-acre waterside estate in Far Rockaway for patient care. Lewis Strauss resigns as president, replaced by Frederick Brown.
– March 11, Henry Frauenthal ‘suicides’
from a jump off the hospital building (or a push out a top-floor window). Clara Heinsheimer Frauenthal is sent to the Blythewood sanitarium in Greenwich CT. Dr. James Ewing “the cancer fighter” joined the hospital. Several prominent directors die within 1 to 2 years (deaths of Leo Doblin, Frederick W. Kaufman, and vice-pres. Charles Kaye). Herman Frauenthal, Harry Finkelstein and Leo Mayer hold the top spots. http://www.med.nyu.edu/orthosurgery/assets/hjd_history.pdf
The Hospital for Joint Diseases is part of the modern NYU (Montefiore) medical complex.
Louis F. Rothschild, Wall Street investment banker specializing in bankruptcy buy-ups, was married to Cora Guggenheim. L.F. Rothschild had 5 siblings; Simon F., Maurice, Harry, Alfred and Minnie. Cora’s brother Benjamin Guggenheim also died on the Titanic.
– (1830-1919)convicted of treason in the armed insurrections of 1848, allowed deferred jailto finish his medical studies in 1851, jailed from 1851-1853 and emigrated/fled from Germany in 1853, first to England and then New York. He opened the first US children’s clinic in 1860. In 1865 Jacobi received a professorship at Columbia.”Lenox Hill Hospital was originally the German Dispensary, and was co-founded by Dr. Abraham Jacobi. Jacobi served as Edouard Lasker’s physician when he took ill in New York City in 1884, and was a mutual friend of German revolutionary Carl Schurz and Andrew Dickson White, Skull & Bones 1853.” http://www.smokershistory.com/Salk.htm
. Dr. Jacobi was a key ally to Nathan Straus in his campaign for compulsory pasteurized milk after 1893. Jacobi founded the American Pediatric Society, co-founded the American Journal of Obstetrics. A.Jacobi’s Papers at Princeton: http://diglib.princeton.edu/ead/getEad?eadid=C0724&kw
Mary Putnam Jacobi -(
1842-1906) Influential suffragist and physician http://www.nlm.nih.gov/changingthefaceofmedicine/physicians/biography_163.html
; studied in New York and at the Sorbonne in Paris; in 1886, MPJ contributed a chapter on the neuropathology of polio to an encyclopedic medical textbook, noted to be the first such published English language description. The Jacobis were active and well-known supporters of ‘radical’ socialist causes. At age 63, MPJ died of a brain tumor.
Alfred M. Heinsheimer – (nephew of Solomon Loeb, of Kuhn Loeb &Co.) established the New York Foundation which gave its first grant in 1909 to the newly created National Committee for Mental Hygiene. Henry Frauenthal’s death was blamed on mental problems and Clara Heinsheimer was subsequently committed to a Connecticut mental institution following his ‘suicide’, where she remained the rest of her life.
– (1858- ) brother of Samuel Sachs, co-founder of Goldman Sachs
; graduated from Harvard in 1878; studied neurology in Berlin (under Rudolph Virchow) andVienna, degree in 1882; studied under Jean-Martin Charcot in Paris; studied under Meynert along with Sigmund Freud; returned to NYC in 1884 to work with Isaac Adler; discovered Tay-Sachs disease; published the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (1886-1911);chief of the first neurology ward (1900) at Mount Sinai Hospital. >>see The Opal Project http://www.theopalproject.org/ourstory.html
timeline entry : “1905 Bernard Sachs, author of A Treatise on the Nervous Diseases of Children recommends that masturbation in children be treated by cautery to the spine and to the genitals. Cauterize is to burn, sear or destroy tissue.”
Bernard’s daughter Helen Sachs married Nathan Straus Jr. The Straus family patriarch, Lazarus, was a ’48’er whose sons, Isidor, Nathan, and Oscar reached prominence in business (R.H. Macy’s, Abraham & Straus) and politics. Nathan Straus Sr. devoted his fortune to Zionist causes and the pasteurization of milk. Nathan Straus Jr. was a close friend of the banker Otto Frank, father of Anne Frank. Oscar Straus was the US Ambassador to the Ottoman Turks. During the 1919 Paris Peace convention, “Uncle” Oscar Straus invited Lewis L. Strauss who was in Paris as Herbert Hoover’s aide, to live with him. (It was there that Mortimer Schiff offered a Kuhn Loeb position to L.L.Strauss)
Lewis L. Strauss
– served as Herbert Hoover’s aide-de-camp in the US Food Administration/Committee for Belgian Relief; president of the ‘HJD’ from 1917-1925; partner in Kuhn Loeb & Co. investment bank controlled by Jacob Schiff in 1919; married Jerome Hanauer’s daughter Alice; Rear Admiral in the USNavy WWII; chief of the Atomic Energy Commission; unauthorized Secretary of Commerce (1958-1959); published semi-autobiographical memoirs in 1962 “Men and Decisions” [see biog. page https://polioforever.wordpress.com/lewis-l-strauss/
lower Manhattan c.1930s
The city was described as a great “social experiment”, clearly demonstrated in this book as developing the communitarian value ‘system’ with an array of social agencies from food distribution and religious education to job training and housing design. One year after the publication of this book, the first Communist revolution took place in Russia during a war financed by the Wall Street cartel.
[page 60] “The idea of the social settlement was brought in fairly organized form to the United States from England, and in 1887 was started as the Neighborhood Guild which has since taken the name of the University Settlement…there are more than 25 of these settlements now in the city”…
The Children’s Aid Society is mentioned often as a sponsor of programs and institutions –originally founded in 1853 by Charles Loring Brace, who also founded the “Orphan Train Movement” to ship city street children out west to pioneer towns where they became indentured to families until the age of 18. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Children’s_Aid_Society