“Influenza-like illness” (ILI) is the sudden onset of a sickness that produces headache, fatigue, sore throat, nausea, fever and bodyache, being interchangeable with polio-like illness at the start. Neither category has been well defined, but both are symptomatic for conditions of toxicity and attributed to viruses. Influenza and polio, likewise, have infection of the nervous system in common –certain strains of both virus-types are neurotropic. Older study literature on influenza describes “atypical pneumonia” and presents a range of infections of the respiratory tract, many of which are recognized to involve other viruses. Autopsy observations recorded in 1896 by Simon Flexner remark on the presence of intestinal bacteria in the lungs of pneumonia victims and further reports a general dispersion of these bacteria in other organs which are noted to have “wandered” through the intestinal walls from “imperceptible lesions”. In a follow-up study the next year, Flexner confirms the pathogenic nature of the gut bacteria, noting that certain ‘treatments’ enhance their virulent qualities. This raises questions about ‘polymorphisms’ and ‘latent infection’ as well as demonstrating a vulnerability in the digestive tract which is a primary organ structure of the immune system. The small intestine was observed to be highly radiosensitive and prone to X-ray damage (see the JEM, 1910-1925). Bacteria themselves were ‘treated’ with X-rays as a standard element in microbiology investigation, preparing industrial materials and harnessing the processes of bacterial mutants.
http://jem.rupress.org/cgi/reprint/1/3/559 , and the follow-up from the Sept. 1897 JEM http://jem.rupress.org/cgi/content/abstract/2/5/549
Leaky Gut Syndrome http://www.ei-resource.org/illness-information/environmental-illnesses/leaky-gut-syndrome-(lgs)/ [this site fails to add radiation exposure to the list of causes]
One of the first big epidemics of flu in the U.S. came with an influx of Eastern European immigrants c. 1890, when the world was experiencing a global pandemic. New York City was hit especially hard as crowded neighborhoods thickened with newcomers. The situation did much to alter local politics and rouse public opinion against immigration, and in support of public health policies. Nathan Straus, co-owner of R.H. Macy’s Department Store, responded with charity for the Jewish immigrant community which had become the focus of the outbreak. He then turned his attention to milk as a source of disease following a personal experience with the loss of a child. Within two years, Straus opened the first ’safe milk’ distribution center, eventually dedicating his life and fortune to pasteurizing milk and the reclamation of Palestine by the World Zionists. In 1898, when New York City incorporated the five burroughs that make up the modern city, Straus became the NYC Health Commissioner. With the aid of pediatrician Abraham Jacobi and Dr. Milton Rosenau of the National Hygenic Laboratory, both of whom are important figures in the story of polio, Straus made strides in the U.S. and Europe to process and sanitize milk for the public over the coming decades. He offered near giveaway prices for milk substitute –a formula of barley water, lime, and sugar– and otherwise subsidized milk purchases to sell at a penny less than the open market. Straus established laboratories and training programs for doctors and nurses in methods of pasteurization, offering subsidies and milk ‘coupons’ to be passed on to patients. Straus’s stature in New York was near heroic. His timing ran parallel to an overhaul of the city’s water system, and retrospectives on the value of this earliest experiment at milk pasteurization are hopelessly inconclusive, statistically inseparable from significantly improved water quality. Tuberculosis, which was a killer in 1 of 7 deaths, seemed to abate. Rates of influenza, ‘grippe’, and polio, however, began to rise. These three were companion epidemics, occurring one within the other, or side by side for all appearances.
[“Healing with Milk” http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2009/08/02/healing-with-milk/ , positing that real unpasteurized milk has pharmaceutical quality benefits, the loss of which is literally denaturing the human population]
The massive 1916 NYC polio outbreak, which provoked an unprecedented scale of quarantine, was recorded as diphtheria and pneumonia –not polio– but thousands of children apparently suffered the acute paralytic effects. The records belonged to Simon Flexner along with the experimental studies that followed in the next six months, unseen by the academic community until 1963. Flexner’s papers were re-privatized by the American Philosophical Society, an American organization compared to the UK’s Royal Society, shortly after their release. The statistics on influenza today reflect a ride-along with pneumonia, and polio has slid down the memory hole, but clues to the nature and origin of these illnesses lay in the early work of the Rockefeller associates and the timing of particular toxic events. In 1916 New York, on the threshold of joining The Great War, the Black Tom Island explosion on July 31 preceeded a sickness explosion that was felt as far away as New Haven Connecticut. The epicenter of the ‘polio’ outbreak was in the burrough of Brooklyn, on the opposite (downwind) side of Manhattan from Black Tom Island. Brooklyn had been a notorious source of “swill dairy” milk, made by cows fed on brewery slop. In a nearly continuous event, America entered the War in April of 1917 and 8 months later, the greatest pandemic ever known swept the earth in three great waves. The death toll lies somewhere between 20 and 100 million. But, in fact, no one really knows the extent of the Spanish Flu. It was unusual for a very irregular illness that occurred within the larger context of more familiar diseases. Many of the outbreaks were reported as plague and a convincing retrospective was compiled to show the casualties as victims of tuberculosis –what is evident and clear is that most deaths were the result of ‘atypical pneumonia’ and could have been indirect war casualties due to hazardous industry and to novel medicaments like aspirin and nitrate products. What can’t be ruled out is a biological warfare attack that was not subtle in its strategy or success. Spanish Flu undermined the last-chance German military campaign before the November armistice, and interfered with the Paris Peace negotiations removing the ‘moderate’ influences among many delegations. The after-effects of the pandemic were new emerging illnesses in the 1920s and 30s.
The Next Pandemic
PBS produced this documentary for the American Experience program, “Influenza 1918” http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/influenza/ . Other recent retrospectives include the 1999 book release “Flu: the Story of the Great Influenza Pandemic and the Search for the Virus that Caused It” by Gina Kolata, and the 2005 book “The Great Influenza” by John Barry.
2002, The Jordan Report, ‘History and Commentary’ [page 10 of the pdf]
“As for another of the three entities identified by CARD, atypical pneumonia, NIAID’s Dr. Chanock was among the first to show that it was not caused by a virus, but by an antibiotic-sensitive mycoplasma, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (5), subsequently shown to be the cause of 25 percent of all cases of pneumonia requiring hospitalization. Attempts to develop a vaccine have not been successful to date.” http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/topics/Malaria/PDF/jordan20_2002.pdf
–CARD, the Commission on Acute Respiratory Disease, Armed Forces Epidemiological Board (AFEB) _____________________________________
http://www.uncw.edu/smec/gk_fellows/Documents/BubonicPlague.pdf …..”The early signs of plague are easily mistaken for flu or other illnesses: fever, chills, and weakness to the point of severe prostration. Plague’s ability to masquerade as flu in the early stages is particularly unfortunate…early diagnosis of plague is essential…the Pasteurella pestis organism causes hemorrhages which are called plague spots…..the pneumonic form of the disease, which develops as a particularly virulent form of pneumonia, can be directly transmitted..during coughing or sneezing”…
Dec. 23, 1929 Dr. Isadore Sydney Falk “announced the germ which causes influenza” as a polymorphous streptococcus http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,738335,00.html [Dr. Falk later participated in designing a national healthcare insurance program which was rejected, see the Nelson A. Rockefeller page]
The influenza virus was not ‘discovered’ officially until 1933; found in the body fluids of researcher Wilson Smith at England’s National Institute for Medical Research (Rhodes Farm). His initials “WS” mark the first known human strain of the type A influenza group. Over the next decade, research into viruses became a special study, extending the foundation of bacteriophage work begun at the turn of the century. Australian Frank Macfarlane Burnet is history’s most intrepid flu researcher [https://polioforever.wordpress.com/f-macfarlane-burnet/] who discovered the ‘fragmented’ quality of the virus’s genes and its abillty to readily recombine, a quality of polioviruses as well but to a lesser degree. A ‘phage’ is a virus carried by a bacterium, the study of which opened the door to insight on the mechanism of genetic transfer in the 1930s. Future Salk Institute Fellows, Salvador Luria and Renato Dulbecco, were keenly interested in phage mutation as a key in evolutionary change.
“In examining influenza cases in 1918 and 1919, ‘whole zoos’ of microorganisms were found, including Pfeiffer’s bacillus, staphylococci, strepococci and pneumococci. Indeed, during the pandemic the real cause, the influenza virus, was never to be seen”.. http://www.nimr.mrc.ac.uk/MillHillEssays/2000/influenza.htm
The peculiar, hemorrhagic and deadly ‘Spanish Flu’ has never reappeared. Which ‘animal’ in the zoo caused it? Is this a case of manufacturing a virus to fit a disease?
Current discussion suggests that the Spanish Influenza agent rode in on space debris, as did the SARS agent (2003) and other anomalous viruses. Data citations prove that the “novel coronavirus” implicated in SARS was most likely a lab specimen undergoing experimentation in “minimal genome” and “artificial amino acid” studies from 1999 to 2001 and beyond.
http://drbroxmeyer.netfirms.com/001pdfBIRDFLUEDITORIALPUBLISHED.pdf , cases of tuberculosis in the pandemic…”There is an old adage which rings particularly true for even state of the art science. It reads, ‘You get what you look for'”…
Aspirin and the 1918 Flu http://citizen2009.wordpress.com/aspirin/
Remembering the 1918 flu in Philadelphia –“imported” by Indian seamen from a British ship http://www.annals.org/content/145/2/138.full
Antacids are identified as a cause of flu and osteoporosis http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Drugs/Aluminum_Hydrox.htm
From Dr. Mercola, interview with Dr. Shiv Chopra : “No flu vaccine has ever worked. Swine flu, we don’t even know there is such a thing. It’s a misnomer. Avian [bird] flu, these are all made-up things. The whole thing is a hoax. It has been for the last 10 years. First they started with the avian flu, and then swine flu.” http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2010/01/05/An-Expert-Explains-the-Flu-Vaccine-Deception-and-the-Swine-Flu-Hoax.aspx
“Dr. Chopra was really one of the earliest advocates to warn that the bird flu was a hoax, and he explains that nobody really knows to this day what all of the major influenza epidemics of the past really were — including the 1918 flu epidemic.”
1976 Swine Flu Vaccine, aftermath, from CBS 60 Minutes http://www.dailymotion.com/relevance/search/cbs+60+minutes%2C+swine+flu+vaccine/video/x9mh9f_swine-flu-1976-propaganda_webcam
Flu Research – Historic
1881 – discovery of the ‘organism’ of pneumonia by George Miller Sternberg
Richard Pfeiffer – German physician who isolated the Haemophilus Influenzae bacillus from the ‘Russian Flu’ pandemic of 1890-92
Hans Zinsser – Textbook of Bacteriology
F.G. Crookshank – 1922 collection of essays on influenza
F. Macfarlane Burnet [see biog. page] – bacteriophage and influenza; in 1940 Burnet tested a ‘live’-attenuated flu vaccine on humans in an experiment that was closely repeated by Americans Francis & Salk in 1943
Sir Christpher Andrewes, Wilson Smith, and Sir Patrick O. Laidlaw – British ‘discoverers’ of the influenza virus, 1933
Thomas Francis, AFEB
Jonas Salk ,AFEB
George K. Hirst (1909-1994), AFEB and Rockefeller alumni,1961 conference in Glasgow http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/pagerender.fcgi?artid=1958569 ; citations from Hirst: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?article=2135394 “Adsorption of Influenza on the Cells of the Respiratory Tract” ; http://jem.rupress,org/cgi/content/abstract/99/4/307 “The Experimental Production of Combination Forms of Virus: III..” ; http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/vol42/issue1/index.dtl “Genetic Recombination with Newcastle Disease Virus, Polioviruses, and Influenza”
Richard E. Shope, AFEB
“Sequelae of Meningitis Due to Hemophilus Influenzae, 44 cases”, Byron M. Boor, Robert S. Grant, and Julius A. Tabris
From the Army (AFEB): the flu in WWII http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksdocs/wwii/PM4/CH04.Influenza.htm