Polioforever's Blog

Polio Timeline

The Polio Timeline traces the earliest known cases and medical records against an expanding backdrop of polio causes –chemical and radiation exposure, polio-like illness, and important related events from 1789 to the present. All blog pages with detailed content are linked in the Timeline.


Sir Walter Scott is considered the first probable ‘modern’ victim of polio; Scott’s physician, Michael Underwood, made the first recognized record of polio:

1789 –London pediatrician Michael Underwood describes “debility of the lower extremities”. Underwood becomes the physician to the Prince of Wales http://catalog.mwa.org/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?v1=1&ti=1,1&Search%5FArg=Underwood%2C%20Michael&Search%5FCode=OPAU&CNT=10&PID=23682&SEQ=20070223225426&SID=1

— Uranium is discovered (1789) by German chemist/apothecary Martin Klaproth, named for Uranus, “son of the earth”

1810 –tentative first recording of infantile paralysis in the US – “writings of orthopedic surgeon A.G. Walter indicate polio was in the United States as early as 1810.” http://home.iag.net/~bgold/may_june_2002.htm

1813 –Giovanni Battista Monteggia describes polio

1823 –medical text description is given by Englishman John Shaw

1828 –Scottish neurologist Abercombie determined that only anterior spinal nerves were involved, making a landmark discovery for diagnosis

1830s –Sir Charles Bell records a small outbreak on Saint Helena Island, British colony in the South Atlantic where  Napoleon Bonaparte was exiled, spending the last years of his life.

1840 –Sweden, Jakob Heine produces his monograph description of polio (Polio Hall of Fame)

–Great Britain began addressing its industrial smog problems, caused mainly by coal-burning, tanning and ore smelting. http://www.aerosols.eas.gatech.edu/EAS%20Air%20Pollution%20Phys%20Chem/Intro1%20AP%20History.pdf

1841 –West Feliciana, Louisiana has an outbreak of ‘teething paralysis’, reported by Dr. George Colmer; 8-10 cases

–uranium is isolated by French chemist Eugene Peligot

1859 — Pennsylvania gives birth to the Oil Industry, allowing America’s Standard Oil under John D. Rockefeller to become the world’s largest producer of kerosene  http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html

>>Lead arsenate comes into use as a pesticide in the 1860s

1868 –Europe’s first recorded outbreak near Oslo, Norway; recorded as 14 cases

1871 — Uranium “was first mined in the western United States in 1871 by Dr. Richard Pierce [sic], who shipped 200 pounds of pitchblende to London from the Central City Mining District near Denver, Colorado.” http://historytogo.utah.gov/utah_chapters/utah_today/uraniummininginutah.html; Pearce’s shipment was applied in U.K. laboratories for development of dyes and steel-hardening alloys. More on radium history: https://polioforever.wordpress.com/x-rays/ 

1870s –early neuropathologists, Jean-Martin Charcot and Hermann Oppenheim, were fascinated by the nerve damage of ‘polio’; observed in a young Frenchman in the tanning industry known as “the French patient” [see The Polio Paradox] https://polioforever.wordpress.com/neurology/; https://polioforever.wordpress.com/the-polio-paradox/

1874 –invention of DDT as a ‘nerve agent’ bioweapon

1875 –“In 1875 an unusual [polio] case was presented to the Society of Biology in Paris. A nineteen-year-old patient had had polio when he was six months old that paralyzed his left side…The young man had recovered partial use of his left arm and leg and became a tanner, which required him to use his arms to pull heavy, wet hides out of vats of acid. By the time he was seventeen, this French patient reported fatigue and a feeling of heaviness in his right arm, the arm that had apparently not been affected by the polio. His right arm and leg both became weaker and smaller”…[known as “the French patient”, the earliest case of Post Polio Syndrome studied]…”From 1875 to 1900, twenty-four articles appeared in European medical journals describing 30 additional polio survivors experiencing new weakness and sometimes atrophy..”

1877 –first use of immune-stimulating adjuvant in vaccine by Pasteur https://polioforever.wordpress.com/polio-vaccine/

1881 –Sweden has its first outbreak, recorded in Stockholm, corresponding to the new practice of widely administered modern vaccines developed by Louis Pasteur and others. www.fjcollazo.com/fjc_publishings/documents/pasteurrpt.htm; Pasteur’s father was a “poor tanner”. With funding and support from Guy de Rothschild, the Institut Pasteur was founded as a rabies clinic. www.polioforever.wordpress.com/germ-theory/; An historical publication on Swedish polio calls this the “pre-vaccine” period, meaning pre-poliovaccine. It notes the first cases among children and teens in 1881 (four cases in an iron manufacturing town) and shows a graph covering (only) 1905 to 1962. Spikes on the graph show peak years as 1911-12, 1936, 1944, 1949 and 1953. http://asclepio.revistas.csic.es/index.php/asclepio/article/viewFile/270/266; Swedish cases from 1881 are alternately recorded as 13 http://universalium.academic.ru/173702/polio

1883 — the French Rothschilds (Alphonse, Edmond, Gustave or Guy) finance the Baku-Batumi railway to bring Caspian oil to the Black Sea port of Batumi: “…Russian oil was a project of the Paris Rothschilds. That meant, in particular, of Baron Alphonse—who had organized France’s reparations after its defeat by Prussia in 1871, was considered one of the best-informed men in all of Europe, and was said to own the best pair of moustaches on the Continent—and of his younger brother, Baron Edmond, who sponsored Jewish settlement in Palestine.http://was-stalin-a-rothschild.blogspot.com/2011/09/was-stalin-rothschild-part-2.html

1884 – “The first accurate account of the cerebral-type encephalitis polio occurred in 1884 Vienna. Charcot’s ablest pupil, Pierre Marie, corroborated Strumpell’s observation the next yearhttp://home.iag.net/~bgold/may_june_2002.htm

1886 – Dr. Mary Putnam Jacobi contributes the first English-language description of polio pathology in an American medical textbook, including late effects which are now called PPS, post-polio syndrome. Mary Putnam was the daughter of publisher Charles Putnam (Skull & Bones) who married Marxist “48er” Abraham Jacobi, the “father of pediatrics”

188788 –outbreaks in Sweden, the largest yet known.

–Pasteur Institute is established by decree in June 1887; opens 1888 http://timelines.com/1887/6/4/pasteur-institute-is-founded

–John Aitken’s invention of the Dust Counter proves that sulfurous gases from coal-burning cause air pollution http://www.aerosols.eas.gatech.edu/EAS%20Air%20Pollution%20Phys%20Chem/Intro1%20AP%20History.pdf

1889 –Karl O. Medin makes his first empirical studies of the Swedish outbreaks

>>lead arsenate comes into use as a pesticide in New England

>>the era of milk pasteurization begins aided by Nathan Straus http://www.answers.com/topic/nathan-straus; “as early as 1889 the Good Samaritan (Eastern) Dispensary supplied sterilized milk for infant patients suffering from intestinal dis- turbances. That was a clinic. The sterilized milk was a remedy dis- pensed through the apothecary.” http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/nathan-straus/disease-in-milk-the-remedy-pasteurization-the-life-work-of-nathan-straus-hci/page-7-disease-in-milk-the-remedy-pasteurization-the-life-work-of-nathan-straus-hci.shtml

–Russian Flu (1889-1893) sweeps through Europe and the U.S.

1891 –the first of many foreign Instituts Pasteur was established in Saigon, Vietnam

1892 — filterable virus is obtained for the first time, transmitted from sick plants to healthy ones, by Dimitri Ivanovsky; Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)

1893 — “The cheap milk depot established by Nathan Straus on the pier at the foot of East Third Street [NYC] was opened yesterday…” http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F00C12FB3B5515738DDDAB0894DE405B8385F0D3;  “That was the genesis of the system of infant milk depots that has since been copied in 127 cities in this country and in many places abroad. …” WHILE carrying on his long fight for the pasteurization of the milk supply in New York City, Mr. Straus extended his propaganda to other cities and found early and most en- thusiastic support particularly in Chicago, which in August, 1908, led all the world by being the first city to require the pasteurization of the milk supply…http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/nathan-straus/disease-in-milk-the-remedy-pasteurization-the-life-work-of-nathan-straus-hci/page-7-disease-in-milk-the-remedy-pasteurization-the-life-work-of-nathan-straus-hci.shtml; 34,400 bottles of pasteurized and ‘modified’ milk were sold by the depot in 1893.  The next year sales rose to 306,446 bottles and 572,150 by-the-glass.

189394 –outbreaks in (Rutland Co.)Vermont and western Massachusetts are the first U.S. epidemics, studied by Dr. Charles Caverly (Rutland physician) who noted ‘nonparalytic’ type

1890s –Sweden, Karl O. Medin and Ivar Wickman note ‘acute infection’ and ‘nonparalytic’ type (Polio Hall of Fame).Sweden’s epic involvement with polio research and its frequency of outbreaks becomes second only to the United States. https://polioforever.wordpress.com/the-polio-hall-of-fame/

1895 –“NATHAN STRAUS LABORATORY, 151 AVENUE C, NEW YORK CITY. Opened in April, 1895… in the great East Side of New York”

–December; Wilhelm Roentgen makes the first medical x-ray of his wife’s hand. Within one month, x-ray machines are being built and operated in unregulated free enterprise. One-hour x-rays become commonplace. Dr. D.W. Gage in Nebraska warns about X-ray dangers. www.polioforever.wordpress.com/x-rays/

1896 – Thomas Edison invents the Fluoroscope [real time, live image x-ray]http://www.edison.me.uk/edison%27sx-rayfluoroscope.htm

— “In 1896 Mr. Straus began supplying pasteurized milk in Brooklyn, through the Diet Dispensary, with five stations. This work was sub- sequently taken over by the Brooklyn Children’s Aid Society, which maintains 14 stations.”

1897 –the Australian Medical Gazette reports that formaldehyde in milk causes paralysis. Prior to pasteurization, formaldehyde was said to sterilize dangerous pathogens, but dairy cows were also fed formaldehyde to increase milk production.

1898 –Henri Becquerel announces his discovery of radioactivity.

–The Curies announce the discovery of polonium and radium. www.polioforever.wordpress.com/x-rays/

1899 — “In 1899 British doctor William Hirsch reviewed all the cases [of polio] reported during the nineteenth century.” [ref. The Polio Paradox]

— Milton J. Rosenau becomes chief of the (2-year-old) U.S. Hygenic Laboratory (pre-NIH); Rosenau’s personal mission is to pasteurize milk and study polio www.fda.gov/cber/inside/centnews.htm

1901 –May-June, the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research is established in NYC www.polioforever.wordpress.com/the-rockefeller-institute/; stated mission is to pasteurize milk and study polio

–Dec, the Carnegie Institute of Science incorporates http://carnegiescience.edu/about/history; Daniel Coit Gilman (cofounder of Yale Skull & Bones; pres. of Johns Hopkins) becomes first president

–chemist Chaim Weizmann develops a new synthesis for polycyclic substances resulting in “carcinogens and other important pharmaceuticals”, contracted to Bayer, industrial member of the I.G. Farben consortium

— Monsanto is founded in St. Louis, Missouri http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monsanto; becomes a major supplier of saccharin and caffeine to Coca-Cola (incorporated 1892)

–Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen wins the first Nobel Prize for x-rays www.polioforever.wordpress.com/x-rays/

1902 — the U.S. Marine Hospital Service changes its name to the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS), under the gov’t jurisdiction of the Treasury Dept.

— Congress passes the Biologics Control Act of 1902 www.fda.gov/oc/speeches/2002/biocontrolact0923.html

1903 –radon/radium is spurrilously added to public drinking water [ref. Albert Schatz, on the subject of fluoride] www.polioforever.wordpress.com/fluoride/

— Milton Rosenau writes the rules for “Regulations for the Sale of Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and Analagous Products in the District of Columbia, etc.”

— “In 1903 the Children’s Hospital Society of Chicago formed a Milk Commission to duplicate the Straus work in that city and the plant for this purpose was donated by Mr. Straus.”

–“Charles Potts wrote the twentieth century’s first article on the late effects of polio –the first to appear in an American medical journal..” [ref. Polio Paradox, Richard Bruno]

1905–1,031 cases reported in Sweden, studied by Ivar Wickman; typical outbreaks in Europe and US involve on average 10-100 victims; “The epidemiological picture showed that polio cases often occurred miles apart, with no obvious connections.” Wickman evolves a theory of healthy-seeming “carriers”…”Wickman’s theory was largely accepted by medical science [worldwide]” http://asclepio.revistas.csic.es/index.php/asclepio/article/viewFile/270/266 [pp8-9 of 15]

–Saskatchewan becomes a Canadian province; “Population quintupled from 91,000 in 1901 to 492,000 to 1911, thanks to heavy immigration of farmers” who built an economy on wheat. In time, mining development in the Athabasca (lakes) region proved the largest and highest grade uranium ore deposits in the world. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Saskatchewan

1905 — U.S. Supreme Court upholds a decision requiring forced vaccination: Jacobson v. Massaschusetts http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2009/09/19/victory-for-forced-vaccination/

1906 — Hygenic Lab chief Rosenau develops a milk pasteurization technique to preserve taste “thus eliminating a key obstacle to public acceptance of pasteurized milk.” www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm484061.htm

–outbreak of ‘polio-like’ cerebrospinal meningitis in New York; Simon Flexner uses the antiserum he developed in 1903

1907 –New York City has first major outbreak of polio; 2,500 cases, 125 deaths (5%); In Massachusetts “234 cases of infantile paralysis reported in 1907 [and then] only 136 cases were reported in 1908. It is interesting to note in this connection that in 1907 444 cases of cerebrospinal meningitis were reported, while in 1908 there were only 183 cases.”   http://www.nccn.net/~wwithin/mass1908_2articles.htm#[Article1]

1908 –western Massachusetts has outbreak of approx. 130 cases, Dr. Caverly attends; reported by Herbert C. Emerson in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal published July 22, 1909. Investigators, who were advised to look for contagion, note a noncontagious character and settle on ‘food-borne’ illness as the cause. http://www.nccn.net/~wwithin/mass1908_2articles.htm   (field survey notes for 69 cases); Dr. Robert Lovett reported “Physicians seeing such cases were also requested to forward to Dr. Theobald Smith, pathologist of the Board, fresh specimens of stools from acute cases for bacteriological study..”

        –Karl Landsteiner ‘discovers’ poliovirus by preparing a filtrate of infectious serum. Later in the year, Simon Flexner and Paul Lewis repeat the experiment; achieving  positive results in 1909. The serum comes from the cadavers of polio victims. www.polioforever.wordpress.com/karl-landsteiner/ ; www.polioforever.wordpress.com/simon-flexner/; Flexner believes polio enters the body through the “olfactory route” (nasal inhalation)

–“Wilhelm Ellerman and Olaf Bang reported that fowl leukosis, a type of leukemia common in chickens, could be transmitted by a filterable virus.” http://tobaccodocuments.org/lor/01134381-4442.html?zoom=750&ocr_position=above_foramatted&start_page=1&end_page=62

1909 –Massachusetts reports 923 cases statewide

formaldehyde ‘sensitivity’ studies begin [ “substances as diverse as formaldehyde, acriflavine, urethane, caffeine, hydrogen peroxide, and manganous ion are credibly reported as active [mutagens] in one or another system….and in general, the results of , i.e., X-ray treatment would not be readily distinguishable from that of formaldehyde.” http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2009/08/11/mutation/

— Milton Rosenau co-founds ‘School for Health Officers’ at Harvard and M.I.T.; he says “Next to water purification, pasteurization is the most important single preventive measure in the field of sanitation.” Rosenau accepts the chair of the new (but not yet so-named) Harvard School of Public Health (from 1909 to 1935). In 1922, Harvard received a $2,000,000 Rockefeller endowment for the (named) School of Public Health.

1910 –tonsilectomies introduced, soon become a routine proceedure

–Leiner and von Wiesner report positive experimental results inducing intestinal poliovirus after preliminary opium injections

–NYC’s 1907 outbreak report is published in the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, by neurologist Bernard Sachs [see page ‘Henry Frauenthal, www.polioforever.wordpress.com/henry-frauenthal/

–Dr. James Ewing (1866-1943) of Cornell attends the International Congress of Cancer Research in Paris; Ewing returns to New York City to establish a Cancer Commission in partnership with industrialist James Douglas. Together, Ewing and Douglas offer the Memorial Hospital large sums of money and radium in exchange for an exclusive cancer ward.

–fluoride experimentation begins at the hands of Frederick S. McKay in Colorado www.polioforever.wordpress.com/fluoride/

1911 –Denmark, Ove Hamburger identifies an Egyptian ‘stele’ from 1500 BC as the image of a man with polio. This is the origin of the ‘ancient polio’ claim of infection. It’s noted that Hippocrates never recorded a paralytic-like debility other than deformity and  ‘club foot’. https://polioforever.wordpress.com/what-is-polio/; the stele is kept at the Carlsberg Glyptotek in Copenhagen.

–Standard Chemical Company (Pittsburgh) is formed to mine, process and market radium.

–radium pitchblende is discovered in the Belgian Congo at the Shinkolobwe mine, a concession of Union Miniere du Haut Katanga; Boris Pregel, radium and uranium dealer who helped supply the Manhattan Project, gives an oral history of the Union Miniere and their monopoly control from the 1920s. http://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/4833.htmll

–Sweden has a sudden dramatic rise in polio, the demographic statistical spike produces the most concentrated cases in its history (nearly matched again in 1953) http://asclepio.revistas.csic.es/index.php/asclepio/article/viewFile/270/266 [p6 of 15]; “As late as 1911 some physicians in Sweden still argued that polio was a disease caused by miasma..(“bad air”)..” During this epidemic (3,840 cases), Ivar Wickman developed his carrier-theory, calling it “abortive” [asymptomatic] polio.

— “In 1911, [Simon] Flexner, who had been hard at work on poliovirus for a year and a half, was reported in the New York Times to have said that within six months a specific remedy [he stated ‘vaccine’] would be announced, for the way to prevent the disease had already been discovered in his laboratory..” –Dorothy M. Horstmann, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2589894/?page=6

1913 –the “Burton process”, a method of ‘cracking’ petroleum to yield double the prevailing amount of diesel gasoline, is patented http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burton_process; At the time, William Merriam Burton worked as a chemist for Standard Oil of Indiana. In 1918, Burton became Standard Oil’s president. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Merriam_Burton

–Rudolf Diesel, inventor of the combustion motor type named for him and designed to run on peanut oil (biodiesel), is found dead 10 days after he disappeared while traveling. The mystery of Diesel’s death was never solved.

–Radioactive ‘tracers’, developed by Georg von Hevesy, are introduced as x-ray contrast media.

–the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research is founded; in 1967 it merges with the Carnegie Institute of Technology to become Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mellon_Institute_of_Industrial_Research; Pittsburgh “Where the sky is plumed by the tall smokestacks of the greatest radium reduction plants in the world.” [p4, introduction, “Pierre Curie”, by Marie Curie]

1914 –Dr. Henry Frauenthal, Titanic survivor, publishes the Manual for Infantile Paralysis. Henry Frauenthal co-founded the Jewish Hospital for Deformities and Joint Diseases with his brother Herman (married to a Rothschild) in a Rothschild residence that was turned into a dispensary. In 1905, the “Hospital for Joint Diseases” had seven beds. In 1907 there were 60 beds, and the hospital soon relocated and constructed a 8-story modern facility. In 1927, Henry Frauenthal plunged off the top of the building to his death. www.polioforever.wordpress.com/henry-frauenthal/

— “Philadelphia established compulsory [milk] pasteurization in the Spring of 1914.” http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/nathan-straus/disease-in-milk-the-remedy-pasteurization-the-life-work-of-nathan-straus-hci/page-7-disease-in-milk-the-remedy-pasteurization-the-life-work-of-nathan-straus-hci.shtml

— Nathan Straus offers to merge his laboratory in Israel with Chaim Weizmann’s fledgling university project (the later Sieff/Weizmann Institute); Milton Rosenau embarks on a junkett for the Commission on the Social Survey of Jewish Conditions in Palestine and becomes stranded in Germany for 3 weeks at the outbreak of WWI

1915 –grippe, pneumonia, and polio are at epidemic levels in NYC, i.e. recorded by Dr. Julius Hammer (father of Armand) in the Bronx

1916 –radium treatment is popularized; ingested and ’emanated’. Many ‘tonics’ in the marketplace contain radium, like ‘Radithor’. The American Radium Society is founded; some of the early records exist in the James Lind Library. The Standard Chemical Co. sells radium fertilizer to farmers;  radium timeline www.polioforever.wordpress.com/x-rays/

         –Polio spikes nationwide in 26 states; major outbreak in mid-August NYC;  9,000 cases, following the explosion of Black Tom Island in NY Harbor on July 31 This event engenders a city-wide quarantine and forced treatment. http://www.amphilsoc.org/library/mole/n/nycpolio.htm. Lawyer-statesman John J. McCloy prosecuted the Black Tom case in the 1930s, winning reparations against Germany. McCloy eventually chaired the founding Salk Institute. www.polioforever.wordpress.com/john-j-mccloy/

–New Haven, CT, records the 1916 outbreak with different results than NYC http://info.med.yale.edu/newhavenhealth/documents/historical/monthly/paralysis2.html

Dr. J.C. Dingman blames contaminated milk in the New York State Journal of Medicine 16: 389, 1916. “Polio-causing milk” continued to be a causation theory well into the 1950s. Context for the relationship of polio, influenza and milk: www.polioforever.wordpress.com/influenza/

1917 –the April issue of the JEM publishes Simon Flexner’s work on the Aug.1916 NYC outbreak  http://jem.rupress.org/content/25/4.toc

–U.S. declares WAR on Germany at the same time (April 6, 1917)

19181919Spanish Flu https://polioforever.wordpress.com/influenza/

1919 – the Institute of Radium is established in Paris with two labs- the Curie lab and the Pasteur lab

–Sweden has a polio spike

1920 — Prohibition (the Volstead Act) is passed in the US, initiating a pervasive bootleg market of liquor and fuel

–“The greatest growth of industrial research laboratories came in the 1920s, when the number grew from three hundred [300] in 1920 to one thousand [1,000] in 1927” –Ronald C. Tobey, The American Ideology of National Science, 1971, U Pittsburgh Press

1921 –FDR contracts polio at the family retreat in Campobello (Island) Canada. In 1918 FDR, as Asst. Secretary of the Navy, was struck by Spanish Flu.

–Albert Einstein and Chaim Weizmann travel to the U.S.A. to raise money for Hebrew University; they establish a zionist Physicians Committee in NYC

–Marie Curie travels to the USA to accept a gift for the Radium Institute, one gram of radium (at a cost of $120,000), paid for with fundraising; the Standard Chemical Co. of Pittsburgh furnished the radium. SCC was soon out of business– cheaper radium came from Union Miniere de Haut Katanga, a Belgian company in the Congo

1924 –Simon Flexner is notified of cases of “post-vaccinal” encephalitis from meningitis vaccines

–Oct, FDR and Eleanor make their first visit to the Warm Springs spa. FDR wrote to his mother, “When I get back [to NY] I am going to have a long talk with Mr. George Foster Peabody who is really the controlling interest in the property…a great ‘cure’ for infantile paralysis..could be established here.” http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/FDRvisit.htm; https://polioforever.wordpress.com/the-treatment/

1925 –‘soft x-rays’ come into popular use, penetrating 2mm into the skin, called “backscatter” x-ray today (such as airport scanners)

–Bell Telephone Laboratories (division of AT&T) is established http://www.aip.org/history/acap/institutions/inst.jsp?bell

1927 –FDR and Basil O’Connor create the Warm Springs Foundation at the Georgia hydrotherapy resort with a ‘whites only’ policy www.polioforever.wordpress.com/the-treatment/

1928 –the Iron Lung is co-invented by Harvard’s Phillip Drinker and Louis Agassiz Shaw http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_lung

–the first useable Geiger counter is perfected.

1930 –500 cases of  paralysis are recorded as caused by bootleg “Jake”, Jamaican ginger alcohol, although the estimates are between 30,000-50,000 during Prohibition. The Jake allegedly contained an organophosphate additive  called TOCP, distributed by bottleggers and amateur chemists Harry Gross and Max Reisman. Armand Hammer is on the record for having cornered the market in Jamaican ginger at this time (1920-1930)

— Polio is characterized as a ‘summer disease’

–creation of the U.S. National Institutes of Health

–major expansion of hospital building by the USPHS under the Dept. of the Treasury, and Sec. Andrew Mellon

–creation of the Kettering Laboratory at the University of Cincinnati http://eh.uc.edu/dept_history.asp; www.polioforever.wordpress.com/fluoride/

–Abraham Flexner founds Princeton’s Institute for Advanced Study (IAS); contracts Eugene Wigner, John von Neumann and Albert Einstein to become resident scholars (Einstein postpones until 1933)

– Stafford L. Warren, future medical chief of the Manhattan Project, publishes new techniques on X-ray mammography http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stafford_L._Warren;  Warren was a faculty member at the University of Rochester School of Medicine, co-founded by Abraham Flexner

1931 –Ernest O. Lawrence begins commercial production of medical radionuclides, made with a ‘cyclotron’ particle accelerator

— “James Trask and John Paul at Yale, faced with a large epidemic that filled the New Haven Hospital with acute cases, decided to undertake investigations…They formed the Yale Poliomyelitis Study Unit.. purchased a few monkeys and began work. Their objective was to see if they could isolate virus from patients who had the minor illness..rather than those with paralysis… This was the first definite recovery of the agent from living patients… It began a new phase of poliomyelitis research.” –Dorothy M. Horstmann, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2589894/?page=3; “Sabin had been a highly productive investigator in the poliovirus field from the time he first met the disease on the wards of Bellevue Hospital in New York in 1931.” –Dorothy M. Horstmann http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2589894/?page=8

–national ‘testing’ of fluoridated water; creation of the Kettering Lab in Cincinnati OH; –Fluoride, essential to uranium extraction and the future Manhattan Project, is in testing at this time for health effects http://www.sailhome.org/Concerns/BodyBurden/Burdens/Fluoride.html (Albert Sabin will relocate to Children’s Hospital in Cincinnati in 1936)

— Quebec Canada reports 1,077 cases; the yearly total for Canada is 1,342. McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, later becomes an important site to the international contingent of the Manhattan Project (where even ‘suspect aliens’ banned from entry in the wartime U.S. are allowed to participate)

–Hickory, North Carolina experiences the largest ‘single event’ polio outbreak on record

–first isolation of the influenza virus in Britain by Frank Macfarlane Burnet (also credited to the year 1933, Sir Charles Stuart-Harris)

–the W.K. Kellogg Radiation Lab is established at Caltech under the direction of Charles C. Lauritsen; particle accelerators used in cancer treatment fund the work of nuclear physics. Doctors from Los Angeles (e.g. Drs. Seeley Mudd and Albert Soiland) bring patients from the L.A. County Hospital up to Caltech in Pasadena –the physicists carry on in the adjacent High Voltage facility.

— Canada becomes a major radium supplier, expands uranium production (500 tons of uranium produce one gram of radium) https://polioforever.wordpress.com/polio-diplomacy /

1932 –the US has a national ‘spike’ in polio cases (1931-32)

–beginning of milk homogenization (cause of heart disease in children)

–recognition of Type II diabetes

1933 — mass Jewish scholar “rescue” migrations begin;in March “Judea Declares War on Germany”; British intend to “save science” and select physicists appear to secure relocation; Leo Szilard helps the Academic Assistance Council (AAC) with relocations; https://polioforever.wordpress.com/making-the-bomb/

–Nelson Rockefeller takes his first “public service” job on the Westchester County (NY) Board of Health https://polioforever.wordpress.com/nelson-a-rockefeller/ ; early order of business is to ban fresh (raw) milk

–the American College of Hospital Executives (ACHE) is created in Chicago under US Army auspices http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_College_of_Healthcare_Executives; http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksdocs/HistoryofUSArmyMSC/chapter4.html

–“International reports of fluoride damage mushroomed in 1933 when the world’s first major air pollution disaster struck Belgium’s Meuse Valley: several thousand [6000] people became violently ill and 60 died. The cause was disputed, but investigations by prominent scientists…placed the blame on fluoride.” [Joel Griffiths, http://www.healthy-communications.com/fluorideproject_for_poisoning_wate.html]

1934 –Los Angeles General Hospital treats a major polio outbreak of 2,500; 198 stricken hospital staff file a class action lawsuit which is settled in exchange for silence. The doctors and nurses were profiled for “atypical polio”, perhaps the first epidemic of a mysterious Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, investigated by A.G. Gilliam www.polioforever.wordpress.com/the-polio-like-diseases/

–Leo Szilard files a nuclear reactor patent with the British Admiralty (radium fuel?–fuel unknown)

1935 –Wendell Stanley of RIMR ‘crystalizes’ Tobacco Mosaic Virus; Stanley will repeat this feat with poliovirus in 1954, as head of the UCBerkeley Virus Lab

–“..in the mid 1930s close to 150 different nose-sprays were tested on mice and monkeys. In 1935, in Alabama USA, there were tests on humans.”

— Edwin Lennette and N.Paul Hudson report “Failure to Infect Monkeys with Poliomyelitis Virus Through Isolated Intestinal Loops” (Univ. of Chicago), noting “Flexner and Lewis, Landsteiner and Levaditi, Leake, Amoss, Schultz, Thompson, Clark and his associates and Jungeblut and Thompson have failed to produce infection in monkeys or higher apes by administering the virus through a stomach tube or by mixing it with food.”

1936 –Percy Brown publishes about scientific ‘martyrs’ in medicine who died from X-ray exposure (see the X-ray page for a timeline)

— polio epidemic in West Samoa caused by ‘arsenic injections’, used to treat syphilis and Parkinson’s

–Sweden has a spike in cases http://asclepio.revistas.csic.es/index.php/asclepio/article/viewFile/270/266 [graph, p6 of 15]

–Sabin moves his lab from Princeton [Dept. of Animal Pathology] to Cincinnati Children’s Hospital

1936 –“In 1936, New York neurologists Salmon and Riley..supposed..the new and frightening notion that the poliovirus might lie dormant in the spinal cord and somehow cause muscle weakness decades later…” [ref. The Polio Paradox]

1937 –epidemic outbreak in Australia

— 3,905 cases reported in Canada, displaying a statistical ‘spike’ in cases; “In Ontario Canada, in 1937, 5,000 children were ‘sprayed’ [with experimental nasal spray]…the spray was ineffective.. [with] unwanted side-effects as many children lost their sense of smell and taste.” http://asclepio.revistas.csic.es/index.php/asclepio/article/viewFile/270/266 [p14 of 15]

— creation of the National Cancer Institute (within the NIH)

–first human case of West Nile Virus causing fatal encephalitis is identified in Uganda

–fluoridation of Native Americans is evaluated and recommended by dentist Henry Klein

1938 –experimentally only monkeys could contract polio by inoculation; the induced method of polio infection required injections of insulin to lower blood sugar which was done with rabbits, normally resistant, followed by poliovirus injection; published in the American Journal of Pathology, Jan.1941.

–Hermann Muller coined the term ‘telomere’ for the gene segment on the end of chromosomes, holding the key to genetic integrity www.polioforever.wordpress.com/hermann-j-muller/  Muller’s insights were achieved by irradiation studies.

— Dr. Stephen Cooter described vitamin B1 deficiency, Beri Beri, as identical to acute polio

–the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (NFIP, or March of Dimes) is founded by FDR

1939 –the German (Hahn/Strassman) ‘discovery’ of nuclear chain reaction (in late 1938) is confirmed by Lise Meitner and the news is spread to the U.S. by Niels Bohr. Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard urge FDR to make The Bomb. Both Germany and the US create “Uranium” committees.

— “an experimental [atom] bomb in the desert” is undertaken jointly by French scientists (Joliot-Curie, Perrin, Halban, etc) and Belgian mine operator Union Miniere du Haut Katanga (UMHK); www.polioforever.wordpress.com/making-the-bomb/

–Gerald J. Cox urges fluoridating milk and bottled water. (The tracking of fluoride by US intelligence will later become an important strategy for detecting covert nuclear activity during the war. Was the US going to hide theirs in milk and water??)

1940 — Nelson Rockefeller presides as the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (CIAA), a Latin American propaganda bureau that serves his family’s  “public health” agenda

1941 –Dr. John Toomey stated that polio was not passed between individuals “no matter how intimately exposed”

—Tuskegee (AL) opens Infantile Paralysis Center http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/full/97/5/784 Tuskegee will later host a Hela “cancer cell factory” and distribution center for the purposes of polio virus and vaccine production

1942 — the Manhattan Project contracts for Belgian uranium oxide, mined in the Congo by Union Miniere http://www3.amherst.edu/~mrhunt/uranium/scene2.htm

— ” Poliomyelitis at San Antonio and Corpus Christi, Texas. From December 25, 1942, to January 8, 1943, Dr. John R. Paul made an investigation of poliomyelitis at San Antonio and Corpus Christi, Texas.. .a community so closely associated with the Army would cause concern to the officers and men of Fort Sam Houston. In this sense, poliomyelitis is a military disease with serious potentialities, particularly because of its occurrence in a region where poliomyelitis had not been epidemic before.”  [pp36-38] http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksdocs/itsfirst50yrs/section1.1.html ; the AFEB also reported “There has been a [1942] recent rise in the incidence of meningococcal meningitis throughout the country.” https://polioforever.wordpress.com/the-polio-like-diseases/

1943 –polio and influenza are pandemic. Dorothy Horstmann at Yale collects blood from 111 polio patients and only one patient tests positive for poliovirus; the U.S. army records the greatest ever worldwide number of influenza cases

— “American soldiers..had high attack rates of poliomyelitis when stationed in Egypt during World War II, far higher than comparable troops stationed in the United States.” –Dorothy M. Horstmann, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2589894/?page=5; see “Poliomyelitis, Experimental Work in Egypt” by C.E. van Rooyen and A.D. Morgan, reported by P.K. Olitsky http://sabin.uc.edu/milsources.cfm

–discovery of DNA; the structure of DNA was confirmed in 1953

–Influenza A vaccine field trials in Michigan by Thomas Francis and Jonas Salk

–the previous achievement of a large nuclear reactor by the Met Lab team in Chicago, December of 1942, propels the Manhattan Project under full steam

1944 –Sweden has a spike in polio

1945 — the era of radioactive atomic weapons fallout begins, starting with the Trinity test in New Mexico (July) and the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.  https://polioforever.wordpress.com/atomic-weapons/

–Sloan-Kettering Institute “was announced in 1945 and began its activities after completion of its building in about 1947 or 1948. Alfred Sloan, of General Motors, gave two million dollars for the construction, and then as costs proved to be about $3,200,000 made a further bequest of about a million dollars” http://archives.aaas.org/golden/doc.php?gold_id=80

–the Laskers, Albert D. and Mary Woodard Lasker, take control of the American Cancer Society. Their friends become Lifetime Trustees (Lewis Strauss of the AEC, Bill Donovan of OSS, Dr.Alton Ochsner in New Orleans, Elmer Bobst pharmaceutical executive, James S. Adams of Lazard Freres, etc.); top grantees of ACS funds are Univ.California, Memorial Sloan-Kettering, Yeshiva Univ. and Univ.Texas. Florence Mahoney, who soon joined Mary Lasker as a Washington lobbyist for the NIH, got a letter from her friend James Cox (Ohio Governor and congressman, owner of Cox newspapers) in 1945 who wrote, “It looks like the cancer thing is on the boom in the country. I’m glad it is.”[ref. p24, Noble Conspirator] “..advertising tycoon Albert Lasker had been a close friend of Governor Cox and the Mahoneys since the 1920s… His largest account, beginning in 1922, was the American Tobacco Company..” [p44] “..Lasker offered to contribute to a national drive [fundraising for the ACS]..That campaign was scheduled to last a month, beginning April 1, 1945. [p49]..[and] Four million dollars was raised..of which $1 million would go to research.. comparable to half of what the entire federal government was spending on cancer research… fundraising reached $10 million the next year (1946), and.. Mary Lasker would sit on its board for the rest of her life.” [p51] http://www.smokershistory.com/Lasker_f.htm#Mary_Woodard_Lasker

Tobacco Trust (history) organized by Standard Oil’s Oliver Hazard Payne and financier Thomas Fortune Ryan http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=11673; Albert’s son, Edward Lasker of Los Angeles, became a Philip Morris director in 1960; the posting continues “The anti-smoking conspiracy began over a century ago. Skull & Bones members ring-led the creation of the American Tobacco Trust, to gather all the companies under anti-smoker control. But they knew that they couldn’t just take over the tobacco companies and shut them down, because others would simply enter the field. So, they also created and built up enemies to persecute tobacco, particlarly the American Cancer Society, the Harvard School of Public Health, and the American Heart Association, and used these as proxies to create and control the federal health establishment (the National Institutes of Health and National Cancer Institute, et al.) to manufacture fraudulent pseudo-science to deceive the public at taxpayer expense.” http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=15088  >>>was the smoking-and-health controversy also promoted to cover-up mass irradiation and air pollution hazards as well as set precedents of “private behavior” as a public concern?

–Vannevar Bush, chief of the OSRD, wrote in a broad report called “Science, The Endless Frontier”, “…The reduction in death rate from diseases of childhood has shifted…particularly to the malignant diseases and the degenerative processes… Another aspect of the changing emphasis is the increase of mental diseases… more than one-third of the [U.S.] hospital beds are occupied by such persons…” http://www.nsf.gov/about/history/vbush1945.htm#ch2

1946 — Austrian physicist Hans Thirring publishes a commercial book in Vienna describing the theory and materials required for a hydrogen bomb (2 hydrogen isotopes: tritium and deuterium, and lithium) Edward Teller would later say, “The information contained in Thirring’s book was known to people working in the field in 1946.” [p191, Energy and Conflict]

–July 1, 1946—The cancer control program was established at the National Caner Institute http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/organization/NCI.htm

1947 — the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act of 1947 (FIFRA) “required for the first time that all pesticides be registered before they could be marketed and that the label specify the content.” http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=54&page=21

–April 16, Texas City, a gulf port for oil and chemical storage outside Houston, explodes in the “worst industrial accident in U.S. history”; “Houston and Harris County, Texas had the second-highest rate of [polio] infection in the nation, and the rest of the Texas Gulf Coast was particularly hard hit…” http://www.tamupress.com/product/Polio-Years-in-Texas,5174.aspx [the gamma globulin vaccine trial chose Houston as a test city in 1952-53]

1948 — Jonas Salk receives a gov’t grant to develop polio vaccine; however, through 1951, he made and tested influenza vaccine, paid for by the March of Dimes and the US govt; his lab is equipped at the Univ. of Pittsburgh.  https://polioforever.wordpress.com/jonas-salk/

–the atmospheric monitoring system created for nuclear weapons detection, under the direction of Lewis Strauss, is in full-swing; www.polioforever.wordpress.com/fallout/

–An outbreak of polio in Guam affects only Americans

–The (first) International Poliomyelitis Conference is held in New York, with the understanding that regular ongoing conferences will be permanent

— “June 1948..Moore County [North Carolina] was becoming known as the hot spot in a multi-state polio epidemic.” http://www.firsthealth.org/About%20FirstHealth/Newsroom/FirstHealth%20Magazine/Spring%202006/Polio%2050%20years%20after%20Salk.htm

–“It was suggested that either an ‘unusual’ and mild poliovirus or some unknown virus caused.. symptoms that were called ‘Akureyri Disease’ but are more commonly referred to as ‘Iceland Disease’ (ID).Support for an “unusual” poliovirus as the cause came in 1955 http://www.ippso-world.org/ppsinfo/articles/bruno/fatiguetreat.html

–Oct, one of the worst single air pollution disasters in the U.S. occurs in Donora Pennsylvania; caused by fluoride, funded by the Mellons

1949 — Benjamin P. Sandler publishes  “Diet Prevents Polio”

–Stanhope Bayne-Jones, Brig. General of the AFEB, Armed Forces Epidemiological Board (and Skull & Bones, 1910),  announces to the New York medical establishment that the future is “chronic disease”. Bayne-Jones is president of New York Hospital-Cornell Med. Center and the Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York

–Basil O’Connor speaks at the Gala for the Westinghouse Science Talent Search http://www.societyforscience.org/sts/history

— The USSR tests its first Atom bomb, August 12

— Sweden has a spike in polio

1950s –the US population stands near 150 million: 750 million X-ray proceedures, enough for approx. 5 per person per year, are rendered. 84 million dental X-ray treatments yield an average of 5 rad per X-ray, a sufficient one-time dose to cause ‘blood changes’. 150 rad (1.5 Sv equivalent) is the “death threshold” for single exposure.

–“..1950 was a record year for polio in Virginia and..Virginia ranked second in the nation..[for]polio per capita in 1950…The lowest year on record was 1942 with only 43 cases*…Beginning in 1948..extreme fluctuations seemed..less frequent with a pattern of more cases occurring each year…What happened that year..in the little town of Wytheville..” http://www.ott.zynet.co.uk/polio/lincolnshire/libary/drhenry/virginiaepidemic.html   >>>County seat, Wytheville had the only two hospitals in the county; mining lead and zinc.

–case rates globally are rising: “243 patients were diagnosed with acute poliomyelitis (polio) in Western Norway between 1950 and 1954; 186 were paralytic and 57 were non-paralytic.” (citation, http://lib.bioinfo.pl/auid:2178917 ), historic investigation by Tiina Rekand, Univ. of Bergen

–a phenomenal record of 8 major hurricanes hit the US; Irving Langmuir conducts weather modification (chemical burning) in Socorro, New Mexico

–the Soviets are believed to have tested a hydrogen bomb “in late 1950” based on chemical analysis from the fallout collection system. Reliable accounts say the information was top secret and told to only 6 people, including President Truman and Secretary of State Dean Acheson. By 1951, Soviet thermonuclear capability appears certain. The Western Shoshone claim an experimental H-bomb device was accidently detonated over the ocean off the Pacific Northwest in 1950 (could it be the same incident or did the “Russian test” actually cover for a U.S. accident?)

–John R. Paul (Yale, New Haven) conducts a poliovirus survey in an Arctic Eskimo village –because of fallout?– and learns “that a single subclinical infection with poliovirus resulted in immunity which could persist for more than forty years. Such remote Arctic areas with small population groups could not sustain continued circulation of the virus; it therefore disappeared when the supply of susceptibles was exhausted.” –reported by Dorothy M. Horstmann, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2589894/?page=5

1951  –US Senate hears testimony about the pesticide causes of polio from Drs. Morton Biskind and Ralph Scobey

— The Nevada Test Site begins atomic blasting operations in January with the first domestic tests, Operation Ranger www.polioforever.wordpress.com/atomic-weapons/

–HeLa ‘cancer’ cells are taken from patient Henrietta Lacks and distributed for experimental ‘polio’ use www.polioforever.wordpress.com/immortal-cancer/

–a dramatic increase in Canadian polio occurs with a concentration of cases in the central provinces; Ontario reports highest case rate overall in the 1950s ; the cause corresponds with nuclear material processing and fallout, not only from tests but North America’s first operating reactors www.polioforever.wordpress.com/fallout/

–“In..the city of Rochester [NY]…that snowfall in January..registered radiation readings of 25 times above normal levels in the air around the [Kodak] plant”  http://www.idealist.ws/nevada.php

— Science magazine publishes an article about the radioactive snow in Ann Arbor, Michigan http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/refs/113/2941/545?ck=nck

         –Sept., the Second International Conference on Poliomyelitis is held in Copenhagen

         –Sep.-Dec.1 William McD. Hammon tests gamma globulin on 5,768 Provo Utah children. It’s the first large “double-blind”/placebo  medical experiment (which was considered unethical). Operation Buster-Jangle detonations at the NTS occur from Oct.22-Nov.29, bracketted by the gamma globulin trials (Sept 4-Dec.1)  www.polioforever.wordpress.com/provo-utah/

–Ludwik Gross discovers polyoma virus (SV40 archetype) https://polioforever.wordpress.com/sv40-monkey-virus/

1952 — July, Hammon’s gamma globulin team injects 54,000 children from Houston,TX and Sioux City,IA.

–Adm. Lewis Strauss of the AEC announces satisfactory thermonuclear tests https://polioforever.wordpress.com/lewis-l-strauss/

–Salk believes he has a successful polio vaccine; is it because of poliovirus stock grown on cancer cells?https://polioforever.wordpress.com/immortal-cancer/; Salk field tests on institutionalized children who already had polio and recovered. (Was he taking their blood serum for gamma globulin needed by atomic personnel?)

–founding of the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/israel/book.htm

–from 1952 to 1956, the NIH budget “ballooned from $98.5 million to $400 million” annually [p181, Noble Conspirator]

1953 – Jan.20 Dwight D.Eisenhower takes office http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/All_About_Ike/Presidential/Presidential.html

— ”Reality in 1953, physicist David Inglis observed, was the rapid horrible fruition of the [hydrogen] bomb.” [p336, Lawrence and Oppenheimer]

’53-54–Salk IPV field trials involve 1,830,000 children aged 6-9 years, many from residential institutions. www.polioforever.wordpress.com/the-francis-report/

–Nelson Rockefeller becomes the acting Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare

1954 —“Sabin began his official testing in 1954..at a correctional facility in Chillicothe, Ohio.” http://sabin.uc.edu/series7s.cfm

–Wendell Stanley (UC Berkeley) ‘crystalizes’ poliovirus

–the U.S. atomic weapons program goes thermonuclear with “deliverable H-bombs” detonated in the Marshall Islands; domestic nuclear electric power is authorized

–Dr. Louis B. Flexner (nephew of Simon, Bernard, and Abraham) establishes the Institute of Neurological Sciences at the University of Pennsylvania  http://www.nap.edu/readingroom.php?book=biomems&page=lflexner.html

–Dr. Alton Ochsner is “the first physician to establish a link between cancer and smoking.” [p51, Noble Conspirator] The link, as it currently exists, implicates polonium in tobacco– is this from “radium fertilizer”(in use as of 1911) or other uranium/DU products used on crops? Does it have a bearing on the aggressive cervical cancer cells taken from tobacco farmer Henrietta Lacks (HeLa) in 1951? (and used for poliovirus vaccine stock)

–John F. Enders, Thomas H. Weller and Frederick C. Robbins win the Nobel Prize for Medicine; cultivation of poliovirus on human embryonic tissue http://lib.bioinfo.pl/ , Nobel speeches http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1954/press.html

— the Third International Conference on Poliomyelitis is held in Rome

–AEC chairman Lewis Strauss speaks at the Gala of the Westinghouse Science Talent Search http://www.societyforscience.org/page.aspx?id=649

1955April —The Cancer Chemotherapy National Service Center was established in the National Cancer Institute [NCI] http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/organization/NCI.htm

–April 12, Thomas Francis announces the success of the Salk IPV field trials; govt begins immediate distribution.>>>>’Provocation’ polio halts the program on May 6 for five days –contaminated vaccine is blamed on the Cutter Laboratories– in the midst of Operation Teapot, the first H-bombs detonated in Nevada www.polioforever.wordpress.com/polio-vaccine/

–Nelson Rockefeller (no longer at HEW) ensures a failed “peace” and predicted nuclear arms buildup at the 1955 Geneva summit. He had the job of “Special Assistant to the President for Psychological Warfare”. The meeting was a significant gain, nonetheless, for Atoms For Peace. The era of “Polio Diplomacy” begins.

— Oveta Culp Hobby resigns from HEW in July and returns to Texas; she resumes national government service in the 1960s

–Canadians build a reactor for India

–Israelis start up the Soreq reactor, acquired from the U.S. https://polioforever.wordpress.com/jfk-assassination/

1956 –“In 1956, a medical team from the Soviet Union visited the United States to study poliomyelitis and the Salk vaccine… The medical establishment in the Soviet Union decided to use Sabin’s vaccine in a mass immunization program later that year.” http://sabin.uc.edu/series7s.cfm

1957 –Sabin tests OPV in Czechoslovakia and USSR http://lib.bioinfo.pl/pmid:14009509 ; Koprowski tests OPV in Africa www.polioforever.wordpress.com/albert-sabin/ ; www.polioforever.wordpress.com/hilary-koprowski/

–Operation Plumbob initiates the era of greatest atmospheric fallout, to last beyond 1964 (polio forever, folks!); Plumbob includes the first underground test

–“A committee sponsored by the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis categorized EVs [echoviruses] and other enteroviruses (ie, coxsackievirus group A and group B, polioviruses) together in 1957.” http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/963458-overview

–West Nile Virus outbreak occurs in Israel: a matching strain shows up in dead birds , Central Park NYC, in 1999 and spreads to Florida

–“In the summer of 1957 a rainfall in the corn and wheat belts of the midwestern United States carried enough fallout to rattle Geiger counters at rates as high as a million counts per minute per gallon of rain.” [p38, Fallout, ed. John M. Fowler] ..”figures show that the 1957-58 tests put out almost as much fission debris as all the tests that had gone before; in other words..[the tests] nearly doubled the radioactive pollution of our atmosphere.” [p25, Falloutwww.polioforever.wordpress.com/fallout/

1958 –fluorine (and compound fluoride) is linked to human cancer by Dr. J.F.Montague

–dedication of the Polio Hall of Fame www.polioforever.wordpress.com/the-polio-hall-of-fame/

1959 – creation of the Salk Institute; temporary buildings erected in 1960 www.polioforever.wordpress.com/salk-institute/

 Meltdown at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL, owned by North American Aviation), just outside Los Angeles; “In July, 1959, the site suffered a partial nuclear meltdown that has been named “the worst in U.S. history”, releasing an undisclosed amount of radiation, but thought to be much more than the Three Mile Island disaster in 1979… The reactors located on the grounds of SSFL were considered experimental, and therefore had no containment structures..” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Susana_Field_Laboratory; In October 2006, California legislators, responding to community calls for independent health studies in the wake of revelations about the site, established the Santa Susana Field Laboratory Advisory Panel…. The panel was a project of the Tides Center” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_Reactor_Experiment; Tides Foundation http://www.undueinfluence.com/Tides-Foundation.htm “Tides is an umbrella foundation, which dispenses the philanthropy of members of the Bronfman family and Peter Buttenweiser” http://www.smokershistory.com/Bronfman.htm;  ”Tides Foundation..is suspected of being a major funding conduit for..George Soros” [Edgar Bronfman, founding funder of the Salk Institute; Peter Buttenweiser, son of Benjamin with Kuhn, Loeb &Co. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/01/01/nyregion/benjamin-j-buttenwieser-investment-banker-91.html]

–August 14, 1959, by Executive Order, the Eisenhower administration creates the Federal Radiation Council; Sec. of HEW, Arthur S. Flemming. becomes the first chair http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1929357/?page=1

–a voluntary nuclear test moratorium is tentatively underway with USA, UK and USSR; Livermore continues to make weapons; Soviets breach the quiet in 1961

1961 — a range of publications on the radiation effects of electromagnetic fields prompts a broad-based academic scientific investigation https://polioforever.wordpress.com/electromagnetism/

1962 — February, Cuba initiates mass polio (Sabin) vaccinations http://www.medicc.org/publications/medicc_review/I/varied/html/inmuno.html

–Dr. Bernard Greenberg, head of Biostatistics at the University of North Carolina, testifies to Congress that vaccine induced polio increased from 1957-58 by 50% and from 1958-59 by 80%. “He concluded that US health officials had manipulated the statistics to give entirely the opposite impression” [Janine Roberts]

–“A study in the United Kingdom in 1962 described two individuals with B-cell deficiency disorder who excreted VDPVs [vaccine derived polio viruses] for 32 and 21 months, respectively. WHO has since established a registry of such patients..” http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/82/1/31-39.pdf [p32]

–“A 1962 British paper by K.J. Zilkha was the first to follow the course of muscle weakness [postpolio] in polio survivors over many years…” [ref. The Polio Paradox]

–Sep, biologist Rachel Carson publishes “Silent Spring”, “600,000 copies were sold in the first year of publication.” http://www.answers.com/topic/silent-spring

–October 25, 1962—The Human Cancer Virus Task Force  [NCI] held its first meeting. http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/organization/NCI.htm

1963 – SV40 monkey virus is publicized widely as a carcinogenic Salk IPV contaminant www.polioforever.wordpress.com/sv40-monkey-virus/ ; A 1995 claim that AIDS and epidemic cancer originated from SV40 and polio vaccines, tied to secret experimentation and the JFK assassination, is the subject of a book www.polioforever.wordpress.com/dr-marys-monkey/; the historical polio records of Simon Flexner, held privately by the Rockefeller Foundation, were briefly released for academic study and then re-privatized by the American Philosophical Society

1964 – Dr. Howard A. Rusk, of the Rusk Institute of Rehabilitative Medicine, is invited to PRC China by Mme. Chiang Kai-shek to advise on the creation of a treatment center specializing in polio. The Chinese detonate their first atomic bomb on October 16, 1964.   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_A._Rusk

1968 — “Monsanto was a pioneer of optoelectronics” …In 1968 Monsanto “became the first company to start mass production of (visible) Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), using gallium arsenide phosphide.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monsanto

1969 – Dr. Emil M. Mrak, Chancellor of UC Davis (Calif.) from 1959-1969, heads a commission report for HEW on pesticide risks. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/index.html?curid=6904064; (Commission on Pesticides and Their Relationship to Environmental Health)

1970 – Albert Sabin becomes president of Israel’s Weizmann Institute of Science. Molecular biologist Maxine Singer (NIH) performs SV40 monkey virus experiments at the Weizmann that contributes to friend and colleague Paul Berg’s work on recombinant DNA using SV40

–“In 1970, three British lung specialists reported…polio patients who were experiencing not only muscle weakness but also “excessive fatigue”, “breathlessness”, an inability to concentrate, drowsiness, and “severe attacks of sleepiness”. These patients also reported “abnormal sensitivity to cold, especially of the extremities”…[ref. The Polio Paradox]

1971 — President Nixon creates the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “by executive order.. transferring pesticide regulation from the U.S. Department of Agriculture
(USDA) to the new agency.” http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/files/repository/calag/fullissues/CAv059n01.pdf

— The Nixon administration declares War on Cancer; December passage of the Conquest of Cancer Act http://legislative.cancer.gov/history/phsa/1971;   ” Several lines of research (in sarcomas, leukemias, lung cancer, and other cancers) indicate increased incidence of cancer causation when chemicals and viruses act simultaneously. Recent public interest in environmental chemicals adds urgency to the need for further research in this area. An example of this is the Secretary’s Commission on Pesticides under the chairmanship of Dr. Mrak.” http://www.smokershistory.com/NCA1971.htm

1976 –Salk and Sabin advise Gerald Ford that a swine flu pandemic is immanent, recommend vaccines; The Ford administration includes VP Nelson Rockefeller, Chief of Staff Dick Cheney and Sec of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, not one of them elected to their posts.

1977 –a nameless chronic fatigue syndrome is recorded by doctors in Nevada, Utah, Florida and New York

1979 – March 28-29, accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), near Harrisburg Pennsylvania. Reactor core damage takes until 1987 to fully assess. www.polioforever.wordpress.com/fallout/

-“The last cases of paralytic poliomyelitis..in the United States were in 1979, when an outbreak occurred among the Amish in several Midwest states..” —fallout from TMI?http://billdoll.com/ref/ideas/health/dis/az/p/pol/pol.html; “As of May 22, an additional case of polio caused by type 1 poliovirus has been reported in Pennsylvania, bringing to 4 the total number of such cases this year. Two other states have reported suspected cases. Three of the confirmed and both suspected cases are in Amish residents..” http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/lmrk061.htm

1980 –“[In] 1980 a group of Italian doctors…concluded that although only one hundred cases [of postpolio] had been described in the preceeding 105 years, late-onset problems in polio survivors were “far from rare”. They agreed..that late-onset symptoms represented a “new process distinguishable from the old disease”.” [ref. The Polio Paradox]

1981 –the first post-polio conference is organized; PPS is soon recognized, ostensibly inflating polio statistics but is it also a ‘cover’ for accumulating illness caused by Three Mile Island fallout which intensified venting in 1982?

–“In 1981, [David] Baltimore and Vincent Racaniello, a post-doctoral fellow in his laboratory, used recombinant DNA technology to generate a plasmid encoding the genome of poliovirus, an animal RNA virus. The plasmid DNA was introduced into cultured mammalian cells and infectious poliovirus was produced.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Baltimore

1986 – April 26, Chernobyl reactor explosion in the Ukraine

1988 –the McArthur River mines in Saskatchewan, Canada, are discovered to be the world’s largest deposit of highest grade uranium ever found.

–the World Health Organization announces a global ‘Polio Eradication by 2000’ vaccination drive.

2000 — “It has been shown..that..Sabin-derived viruses can acquire the transmission characteristics of wild polioviruses and cause both endemic and epidemic disease. During 2000-02, three outbreaks of cVDPVs [circulating Vaccine-Derived Polio Viruses] were reported..”…”..criteria for stopping polio vaccination were defined by global advisory committees.”  http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/82/1/31-39.pdf [p32]; instead a redoubled effort to vaccinate by the World Health Organization is announced www.polioforever.wordpress.com/polio-eradication/

–Apr-Sep, “From April 30 to September 2000, Cuban health authorities reported a marked increase in acute aseptic meningitis cases… the disease was widely distributed: 16,943 cases were reported from April to September 2000. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol7no5/Sarmiento.htm

2001 — “Persistence of vaccine-derived poliovirus..in Cuba” http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/30/5/1029.full.pdf

2002 — Eckard Wimmer of the State University of New York leads the team that makes polio in the lab from ‘scratch’. http://www.abc.net.au/am/stories/s605113.htm

2003 –Coxsackie virus found in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; “coxsackie virus and echoviruses can cause paralytic syndromes that are clinically indistinguishable from paralytic poliomyelitis” [Janine Roberts]; https://polioforever.wordpress.com/the-polio-like-diseases/

2006 –September, “India seemed to be on the verge of eliminating polio last year, when it reported just 66 cases… down from 1600 in 2002. This year, however, things have gone horribly wrong… 70% of those infected..this year are Muslim..” http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0%2C8599%2C1540477%2C00.html

2009 –August,  “In July, the World Health Organization issued a warning that this [polio] vaccine-spread virus might extend beyond Africa. So far, 124 Nigerian children have been paralyzed this year -about twice those afflicted in 2008… Experts have long believed epidemics unleashed by a vaccine’s mutated virus
wouldn’t last..” http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2009-08-14-nigeria-polio_N.htm

2010 –November, “An explosive outbreak of polio is taking place in the Congo Republic, with 201 cases pf paralysis found in two weeks and 104 deaths..”http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/10/world/africa/10polio.html

2011 –March, “Pakistan had more polio infections in 2010 (144 cases confirmed) than any other country..”http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?ReportID=92285

–“More than a quarter of the roughly 220,000 tons of pesticides used in Europe per year is sprayed onto French soil.” http://blog.imva.info/medicine/face-poisoned-man

–Sep 21, “An outbreak of polio has been confirmed in China for the first time since 1999…in..Xinjiang province…genetically linked to..Pakistan, which borders Xinjiang… the local government had launced a mass vaccination campaign in early September..” http://www.click2houston.com/health/29251777/detail.html

2012 — June — “The CDC announced on June 8th that they are almost at the finish line of global  polio eradication. They’ve not had a case of wild polio since January 13, 2011…But they still have plenty of paralysis. In fact they  have more and more every year. AND …children with non-polio Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP), the new name for polio, are at more than twice the risk of  dying than those with wild polio infection! In fact, more oral polio  vaccine has correlated strongly with “non-polio” AFP. One must wonder what  exactly the WHO, UNICEF, Rotary International and the Bill and Melinda Gates  Foundation are really going for… ” http://www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/cdc-and-friends-sprinting-towards-polio-finish-line  polioforever>>>this is spin. The Pakistan-China border cases are all described as ‘wild’.

more to come….


POLIO Graph http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1473032&rendertype=figure&id=F2


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