Polioforever's Blog

Germ Theory

http://www.answers.com/topic/germ-theory-of-disease ”

“Meaning #1: the theory that all contagious diseases are caused by microorganisms”

“Robert Koch was the first scientist to devise a series of proofs used to verify the germ theory of disease[1]. Koch’s Postulates were published in 1890, and derived from his work demonstrating that anthrax was caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. These postulates are still used today to help determine if a newly discovered disease is caused by a microorganism.”

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 Louis Pasteur (1822 – 1895) http://www.answers.com/topic/louis-pasteur ; “In 1848 French chemist Louis Pasteur discovered that almost all life onEarth is made up of molecules that twist in one direction, also known a being either ‘left-handed’ or ‘right-handed’. For example, amino acids, the building blocks of protein, are almost exclusively left-handed, while sugars are right-handed. …Almost 70 years ago, scientists found that circularly polarized ultraviolet light can destroy one type of molecule, either the left-handed molecules or the right-handed ones, depending on which way the light is polarized.” …”His first original work was done on crystals.” …”Since 1880, immunity against bacterial diseases has been systematically studied. In that year, Pasteur discovered by accident that Bacillus anthracis, cultivated at a temperature of 42 to 43 [degrees]C (108-110 degreesF), lost its virulence after a few generations. Later it was found that animals inoculated with these enfeebled bacteria showed resistance to the virulent bacilli. From this beginning dates the prevention, modification, and treatment of disease by immunization… The notion of a weak form of a disease causing immunity to the virulent version was not new; this had been known for a long time for smallpox… The difference with chicken cholera and anthrax was that the weakened form of the disease organism had been generated artificially, and so a naturally weak form of the disease organism did not need to be found.  This discovery revolutionized work in infectious diseases, and Pasteur gave these artificially weakened diseases the generic name of vaccines, to honor Jenner’s discovery.” www.fjcollazo.com/fjc_publishings/documents/pasteurrpt.htm

Institut Pasteur:  “The Squadron of the -Hundred Guards – of the Emperor was founded on March 24th 1854 by Napoleon III. They were a -corps d’elite- whose responsibility was to guard the Emperor in person and to serve within the Imperial Palace. When the Emperor was at Saint-Cloud, the -Hundred Guards- were housed in a building especially designed for their purposes. After the capitulation of Sedan, the Republic took possession of all imperial residences and put some ofthe Saint-Cloud property at the disposal of Louis Pasteur in 1885 for research purposes. He set up a laboratory and used part of the building as his summer residence. It was in fact in this very same building that he died in 1895. Today, a Museum of Applied Research and the Head Office of Pasteur Merieux Serums & Vaccins are located within these same walls.” http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=cohenaids;cc=cohenaids;rgn=main;view=text;idno=5571095.0057.001

 Robert Koch (1843 – 1910) http://www.answers.com/topic/robert-koch

 Paul Ehrlich (1854 – 1915) http://www.answers.com/topic/paul-ehrlich   Ehrlich’s immunochemical experiments:  “Toward the end of the 19th century, evidence started to accumulate for the presence in nature of proteins possessing the ability to agglutinate erythrocytes. Such proteins were referred to as hemagglutinins, or phytoagglutinins, because they were originally found in extracts of plants. It is generally believed that the earliest description of such a hemagglutinin was by Peter Hermann Stillmark in his doctoral thesis presented in 1888 to the University of Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia), one of the oldest universities in czarist Russia (reviewed by Franz, 1988). This hemagglutinin, which was also highly toxic, was isolated by Stillmark from seeds of the castor tree (Ricinus communis). Ricin and abrin soon became commercially available, which prompted Paul Ehrlich, at the Royal Institute of Experimental Therapy (Frankfurt), to employ them as model antigens for immunological studies. Although the preparations available to him were very crude by present criteria (we now know that the ricin and abrin each contained a weakly agglutinating, powerful toxin and a poorly toxic but strong agglutinin, all galactose-specific), he was able to establish with them in the 1890s several of the fundamental principles of immunology. Thus Ehrlich found that mice were rendered immune to a lethal dose of ricin or abrin by repeated small (sublethal), subcutaneous injections of the lectin and that anti-ricin did not protect the animals against the toxic effects of abrin, nor did anti-abrin protect against ricin. This provided clear evidence for the specificity of the immune response. Ehrlich also showed that immunity to the toxins is transferred from a mother to her offspring by blood during pregnancy and by milk after birth. By studying the inhibitory effect of the anti-ricin immune serum on the agglutinating activity of ricin, he demonstrated that there was a quantitative relationship between the amount of antiserum and that of the antigen it could neutralize and on this basis performed the first quantitative determination of an antibody in vitro. These studies thus demonstrated the specificity of the antibody response, the phenomenon of immunilogical memory, and the transfer of humoral immunity from a mother to her offspring.” http://glycob.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/14/11/53R

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Pleomorphism (versus Germ Theory)

 Antoine Bechamp “had succeeded in 1852 in so reducing the cost of producing aniline as to make it a commercial success, and his formula became the basis of the German dye industry.  This brought him some fame, and many more problems to solve.” http://www.fjcollazo.com/fjc_publishings/documents/lpasteurrpt.htm

Chemical, Aniline: “Aniline is mainly produced in industry in two steps from benzene. First, benzene is nitrated using a concentrated mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid at 50 to 60°C, which gives nitrobenzene. In the second step, the nitrobenzene is hydrogenated… Originally, the reduction was effected with a mixture of ferrous chloride and iron metal via the Bechamp reduction. As an alternative, aniline is also prepared from phenol and ammonia, the phenol being derived from the cumene process.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aniline

http://www.whale.to/v/bechamp1.html

‘The Blood and Its Third Element’  http://www.whale.to/v/bechamp_b.html

http://www.whale.to/p/bird.html

 Claude Bernard (1813-1878) http://www.answers.com/topic/claude-bernard

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“The experiments of Clark, Frazier, and Amoss show that after intravenous inoculation in monkeys, the virus [filtrate] of poliomyelitis disappears from the blood within 72 hours; and other observations have shown that it is only after enormous intravenous doses of the virus that the monkey develops the disease. Smaller doses intravenously fail to produce any disturbance.”…..”If injected with 250 to 500 cc [1 to 2 cups!] of the virus by a similar route the animal succumbed to the disease.” http://www.vaclib.org/basic/polio.htm

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Excerpts from “Chaim Weizmann, the Making of a Zionist Leader“, by Jehuda Reinharz, concerning Paul Ehrlich:
“Since the turn of the century, Ehrlich had been director of the Speyer Institute for Experimental Medicine in Frankfurt. [Ehrlich’s son-in-law] Landau telephoned his illustrious relative and persuaded him to [meet with] Weizmann, who hoped to enlist him as an ally in the university campaign [to build Hebrew University in Jerusalem]… Weizmann met Ehrlich in the latter’s laboratory on March 10, 1913… ‘But why Jerusalem?’ exclaimed Ehrlich… after a conversation that lasted well over an hour, Weizmann had won over an important new ally. Characteristically, Weizmann later combined his professional and Zionist goals by working in Ehrlich’s laboratory.
…[Weizmann wrote] ‘To my way of thinking, this is the one slogan that can evoke a response just now –the Hebrew University…The Third Temple!’ He was virtually bursting with good feelings and optimism about the future. [pp377-378] …Yet, as he well realized, the Technicum was dependent on the largesse of people who mostly stood outside the Zionist movement..[and] the Jewsh university had been an entirely Zionist affair… [Weizmann] suggested that the university begin with a medical school… On June 13, 1913, he wrote…’we are beginnng with those institutes that are easier to realize, such as..a modest medical school..'[p379]
   “In 1912 a Society of Jewish Physicians and Scientists for the Improvement of Sanitary Conditions in Palestine was founded in Berlin… Weizmann immediately foresaw the possibility of attaching a ‘chemical section’ to the society which would eventually become the nucleus of the medical faculty of the Hebrew university in Jerusalem. He was likewise positively inclined toward the suggestion of..attch[ing] an institute of chemistry or microbiology to the International Health Bureau in Jerusalem, which would later be incorporated into the university… [he did not] fully accept Baron Edmond de Rothschild’s oft-repeated demand for a behind-the-scenes operation [p383]… [Weizmann wrote] ‘that the science of Judaism and most humanities can be taught in Hebrew..[which] is very amenable for the expression of scientific ideas…the aim should be a complete Hebraization..and development of our national library..[as] a foundation stone of the university…[p389]
   “Weizmann was particularly concerned lest Paul Erlich, a German patriot, be influenced by the debates raging in Germany around the topic of Zionism. Weizmann warned [the Zionist ‘special action’ committee] that ‘a strong anti-Zionist wind is blowing in Germany. I am afraid that Ehrlich will catch cold from it.’ But by February 1914..Ehrlich seemed to have been able to withstand the pressure… Moreover, Weizmann’s success..made it possible for men like Paul Ehrlich, Leopold Landau, Nathan Straus, and others with German affinities to continue their ties to the project [p393]…[Weizmann’s] most important challenge..was gaining Baron Edmond de Rothschild’s..financial backing for the Hebrew University…the baron was ready to help finance the project at a later stage…[p394]…[and] Weizmann continued to advocate the idea of a medical school up until his first meeting wth the baron… Rothschild made it clear that he was only interested in a research institute similar to the Pasteur Institute or a Rockefeller Institute ‘where about 30 or 40 good men would work at scientific research’… On the very same day [Jan.3, 1914] Nathan Straus cabled Weizmann that he would be willing to donate a plot of land for the university…  [but the Zionists] decided to purchase a tract of land on the Mount of Olives…[and]Weizmann was empowered to continue negotiating with the baron and Straus.
   “The baron, a firm French patriot, was pleased about the difficulties [the German Zionists faced]..’based on..his dislike of the Kaiser Juden and their efforts to find a place in the sun for their community.’ ..His anti-German sentiments came through in the discussion with Weizmann. ‘If Ehrlich works in Frankfurt, it is no value to us; he will be eaten up by the Germans.’…the baron wished to have Paul Ehrlich’s imprimatur on the research institute, which Weizmann obtained…[and] above all, the baron insisted on discretion and in keeping his name out of the news….[Instead,] Weizmann published denials..claiming that ‘the alleged negotiations between the baron, Professor Ehrlich and myselfare fabricated…Furhermore, I know nothing about a donation by the bron to the university.’ [p396]
   “What to do, though, about the baron’s most important demand that the ida of a university be abandoned..in favor of a resarch institute? How to explain the fact that Weizmann..later..was willing to accept a research facility akin to the Pasteur or Rockefeller institutes? ..As he began to accept the baron’s idea.Weizmann wrote,’I consider the Rothschild proposal simply magnificent…’ The only way to build a university, he now insisted, was through a research institute, which in time would evolve into a university… it is clear that the baron’s wishes would have been decisive no matter what he proposed. [p397].
   “Armed with.. letters from Paul Ehrlich and other distinguished scientists..Weizmann met th baron in Paris on March 27, 1914… concerned about the baron’s refusal to accept the research institute as the embryo for the future university, Weizmann was also heartened [expecting] ‘He will give later. He always starts with a little, and then becomes involved. He is a very wise old man…’ [p398]
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