Polioforever's Blog

Health Physics

“I feel that at least several hundred scientists trained in the biomedical aspect of atomic energy –myself included– are candidates for Nuremberg-type trials for crimes against humanity for our gross negligence and irresponsibility. Now that we know the hazard of low-dose radiation, the crime is not experimentation –it’s murder”
–Dr. John Gofman, 1979
“Drawing on records that were previously obscure, or only recently declassified, we reveal the perhaps surprising finding that officials and experts in the highest reaches of the AEC and DOD discussed requirements for human experiments in the first years of the Cold War…” –US Dept. of Energy ‘Openness Project’, 1994
“We didn’t want anybody to know we were working on radiation. Work on animals was secret because we didn’t want anyone to be aware of this…” –Hymer L. Friedell, 1994
Stafford L. Warren (1896-1981), “best known for his invention of the mammogram [1930s]”. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stafford_L._Warren . Warren joined the faculty of the University of Rochester (NY) in 1926 in the Department of Radiology. In August 1945, Warren was commissioned by Gen. Leslie Groves to organize a study of the atomic bombings of Japan. He and Hymer Friedell led teams to Hiroshima and Nagasaki between September 8 and October 8. In 1946, Warren was in charge of the RADSAFE group at the Operation Crossroads test in Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, thereafter becoming the first dean of the new School of Medicine at UCLA which accepted its first class of students in 1951. 
Hymer L. Friedell (1911-) Friedell emigrated from Russia as a child and was naturalized in Minnesota, attending the University of Minnesota for his MD. He was a National Cancer Institute Fellow at Memorial Hospital (NY) 1939-1940, and UCSF Hospital 1940-41. “At both institutions he participated in experiments involving humans” before recruitment to the Chicago Metallurgical Project. After the war, Friedell joined the AEC’s Committee on the Allocation of Isotopes for Human Use. http://www.hss.energy.gov/HealthSafety/ohre/roadmap/histories/0466/0466a.html#Biog
Robert S. Stone (1895-1966) Canadian-born Stone served the fledgling Royal Canadian Air Force in World War I as a radio instructor, afterwards accepting a two-year teaching post in China at the Rockefellers’ Peking Union Medical College. Stone next received radiology training from his uncle, Dr. Rollin H. Stevens, at Gracie Hospital in Detroit. In 1928, Stone moved to San Francisco as the first full-time radiologist on the faculty of University of California. In the summer of 1942, Stone was appointed as the Director of Health for the Metallurgical (Plutonium) Project in Chicago. Subsequent to WWII, Dr. Stone returned to UCSF and served on national and international panels (i.e. W.H.O.) for radiation protection. As a Carman Lecturer, Dr. Stone introduced “The Concept of a Maximum Permissible Exposure” to radiation.
Health Physics developed in the postwar as a continuation of the Manhattan Project to extend the study of radiation and industrial chemicals on living beings and ecosystems. During 1944, its practitioners set the tone of how the information gleaned was to be disseminated : “letter from [Hymer] Friedell to Mulliken..re responsibility of Dr. [Robert] Stone for the distribution of Rochester health..reports : “Discretion as to whom these reports should be forwarded would be retained by the health director of the [Chicago] Metallurgical Laboratory”…(Stone to Mulliken): “…the Rochester reports are much more limited in their circulation than the Chicago reports and we will not be permitted to pass out the information to anything like the group that are apparently now getting the CH reports in Chicago”…(Louis Hempelmann to Robert Oppenheimer) : “When satisfactory analytical methods have been developed in the laboratory, the problem of carrying out further metabolic studies will be turned over to..the Rochester group”…(internal military memo): “a relaxation in the tolerance levels would facilitate plant operations, it is recommended that this data be accumulated with the least possible delay”…(April 1945, from Stafford Warren to Nichols) : “For consideration of the medical and legal aspects, including necessary biological research, it should be pointed out..that data and information available from operating personnel..and facilities..should be limited to those features which are deemed most likely to embarass the government”…
Memos from 1950 between health physics project directors passed on reminders about “getting follow-ups…but please get them in a completely routine manner. Do not make the examination look unusual in any way.” ….(letter from [Andrew] Dowdy to a Rochester engineer about what Dr. Bassett can reveal in a department seminar on uranium experiments ) : “he will not mention any other substances which he has..used on humans and which have not as yet been cleared” http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/radiation/dir/mstreet/commeet/meet10/brief10/tab_i/br10i2
Substances of special interest to the health physicists at this time are listed in the January 1947 ‘gwu’ document below and include plutonium, polonium and ‘special oils’. In the early 1990s, Albuquerque journalist Eileen Welsome broke the story about secret wartime plutonium injections, winning a Pulitzer Prize in 1994. Welsome’s investigation led to the creation of both the President’s Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Exoeriments and the Dept. of Energy’s Openness Project. [See the Fallout page for more]
“Initially, researchers knew little or nothing about the health effects of the basic bomb components, uranium, plutonium, and polonium.  But, as a secret history written in 1946 stated, they knew the tale of the radium dial painters..” http://hss.energy.gov/HealthSafety/ohre/roadmap/achre/intro_3.html . The “Radium Girls” worked in a WWI Massachusetts munitions plant, trained to ‘lick their brushes’ for fine painting, and began falling ill shortly after. Between 1923 and 1928 Robley Evans of MIT studied their cases. During WWII, Evans was in charge of nuclear fuel transportation. In that capacity, he sent secret ‘brown box’ packages by night flights to the University of Rochester (Harold Hodge and Stafford Warren) where the contents were used to intentionally contaminate areas of the campus for study. Harold Hodge, senior toxicologist for the M.E.D. at UR, was the nation’s leading promoter of fluoridation. A review of the Manhattan Project effort to obtain the bomb-grade uranium isotope U-235 indicates that massive quantities of gasified uranium hexafluoride were needed by the Project. Fluorine compounds were also critical as “machine oils”, referred to as the “special oils” by the Health Physics documents. [see the Fluoride page for more]

The 1994 DoE Openness Project, which was designed to make a record of surreptitious experimentation on human subjects offers “brief descriptions of more than 2,000 projects identified as having some connection between humans and radiation” .  DoE’s introductory statement indicates the status of record-keeping as “disorganized, poorly catalogued, if at all, and scattered across the country…”.  Oral histories from still-living participants were taken down to supplement the records, “Thirty audiotaped interviews were conducted from September 1994 through January 1995. Interviewees were permitted to review the transcripts of their oral histories. Their comments were incorporated into the final version of the transcript if those comments supplemented, clarified, or corrected the contents of the interviews.” :

Waldo E. Cohn, PhD, at Chicago’s Metallurgical Lab: “I was more or less in charge of what I called radiobiological aspects of the plutonium project.”…[question: Who made the initial overtures to you about joining the Met Lab?] Cohn: People that I had been associated with [at] Berkeley around the cyclotron, Joseph Hamilton and John Lawrence (who was Ernest Lawrence’s brother and who was a physician; maybe some others). They were the first ones [whom] the heads of the project sought out. The reason they were sought out was that the head of the whole biological and medical wing of the Manhattan Project at that time was Robert Stone, who was professor of Radiology at the University of California [Medical School]. He knew those people, and they knew of me” ….” I elected to go to Oak Ridge, where we would actually prepare the fission products and send them back to the half [of the team] I would leave at Chicago, [where] they would do the biological experimentation.”…”So, I became a nuclear chemist, involved with exploring how to get the fission products so they could be used as tracers in experiments; to see how they behaved in mammals…No one had isolated these before. We became very successful at it….To name just a few, there was barium, lanthanum, samarium, praseodymium, and neodymium, and all the [other] rare-earth elements. The ones that are in larger yield and of longer half-life, like barium, strontium, and cesium.”…”This led into the idea of using the nuclear reactor to prepare other radioactive elements, nonfission products like phosphorus-32, carbon-14, etc.” http://www.hss.energy.gov/healthsafety/ohre/roadmap/histories/0464/0464toc.html

Marvin Goldman of Brookhaven National Lab,”In 1951, Goldman began his career working at the Nevada Test Site on the Buster-Jangle Series to determine the inhalation pathway in animals of hazards from fallout of nuclear weapons tests.” As a  trainer in Health Physics : in 1952..”I got a job with the City [NYC] Department of Hospitals, and I was now a walking expert on Geiger counters and radiation because I knew how to turn a Geiger on…..[I worked at] Frances Delafield Hospital..under a fellow named Carl Braestrup. He’s a pioneer in this business. And then I was sent out to Bellevue [NYU’s historic teaching hospital] and to King’s County….We were diagnosing people with thyroid problems using radioiodine. In those days we used to call it an “atomic cocktail”….it was 50 microcuries….Fifty microcuries is a [large] dose of radioiodine. But that’s what you [needed] when you had crude counters…. I worked for a doctor named Aza Friedman; he was Chief Endocrinologist….one time, we got in a load of gold-198, which is a very very energetic beta emitter –we had to build a remote rig…” http://www.hss.energy.gov/healthsafety/ohre/roadmap/histories/0468/0468toc.html

Hymer L. Friedell, a native of Russia, gave his testimony in 1995: ..”We didn’t want anybody to know we were working on radiation. Work on animals was secret, because we didn’t want anyone to be aware of this…All of this, then, had to be handled in a secret fashion.” From 1940 to 1941, Friedell was at UCSF Hospital, then as an Army officer in 1942 at University of Chicago’s Metallurgical Lab. In 1943, Friedell was sent to Oak Ridge where he became an executive officer of the MED Medical Division. He spoke of ‘outside’ projects like the patients in Beverly, Massachusetts “..that’s one of the places…this would be secret…[we’d get] a list of names and dates from 75 to 225 [people]…50…this must be the rads that were delivered….The reports were always made through Chicago, then in turn, we would receive it..in Oak Ridge”  http://www.hss.energy.gov/healthsafety/ohre/roadmap/histories/0466/0466toc.html

Marshall Rosenbluth, who spent 6 years at Los Alamos (1950-1956) said of the University of  Chicago, “the student politics at Chicago was pretty well run by Communists, I would say….I knew there had been a lot of spying done at Los Alamos” http://www.aip/history/ohlist/28636_1.html

Merril Eisenbud became an MED ‘industrial hygienist’ for the AEC , recruited from the Liberty Mutual Insurance Co. : …” in 1947, when the AEC was formed, the New York Operations Office.. set up a laboratory, which I very shortly became director of, which was basically a service laboratory.We ran a film badge service.”… “one thing led to another, and the laboratory eventually, by accident, became involved in [nuclear] fallout studies. I say “by accident” because for some reason, the AEC Division of Military Applications did not have the foresight to set up a monitoring program for fallout. When fallout began to be reported after the first series of tests in Nevada, our laboratory was really the only group in the country that knew how to pack instruments into suitcases and go out to the field and work. So we were asked to set up a monitoring program, which we did.” http://www.hss.energy.gov/healthsafety/ohre/roadmap/histories/0456/0456toc.html

Carl C. Gamertsfelder, who performed at Oak Ridge and Hanford, had significant deletions in his oral:  ” I went with the group that was making a power supply for the Apollo missions, using plutonium-238 as the source of heat to generate electricity” http://www.hss.energy.gov/healthsafety/ohre/roadmap/histories/0467/0467toc.html



DoE Openness:

“Drawing on records that were previously obscure, or only recently declassified, we reveal the perhaps surprising finding that officials and experts in the highest reaches of the AEC and DOD discussed requirements for human experiments in the first years of the Cold War. We also briefly discuss the research policies of DHEW and the Veterans Administration during these years.” ….”we put forward and defend three kinds of ethical standards for evaluating human radiation experiments conducted from 1944 to 1974.”….”In contrast to the plutonium injections, the vast majority of human radiation experiments were not conducted in secret. Indeed, the use of radioisotopes in biomedical research was publicly and actively promoted by the Atomic Energy Commission. Among the several thousand experiments about which little information is currently available, most fall into this category.”…”We determined to focus on children for several reasons. First, at low levels of radiation exposure, children are at greater risk of harm than adults….when the Committee considered how best to study subject populations that were most likely to be exploited because of their relative dependency or powerlessness, children were the only subjects who could readily be identified in the meager documentation available.”

“[W]e address the thirteen intentional releases of radiation into the environment specified in the Committee’s charter, as well as additional releases identified during the life of the Committee. In contrast with biomedical experimentation, individuals and communities were not typically the subject of study in these intentional releases. The secret releases were to test intelligence equipment, the potential of radiological warfare, and the mecha nism of the atomic bomb. While the risk posed by intentional releases was relatively small, the releases often took place in secret and remained secret for years.”

…”it has long been recognized that the physician who engages in research with patient-subjects assumes two roles that could conflict: that of the caregiver and that of the researcher. The goals inherent in each role are different: direct benefit of the individual patient in the first case and the acquisition of general medical knowledge in the second case. The interviews with SIS participants suggest that at least some patient-subjects are not aware of this distinction or of the potential for conflict. In our review of documents in the RPRP we found that the written information provided to potential patient-subjects sometimes obscured, rather than highlighted, the differences between research and medical care”….”The pursuit of these ends–today, as well as yesterday–inevitably means that some individuals are put at risk for the benefit of the greater good. The past shows us that research can bear fruits of incalculable value. Unfortunately, however, the government’s conduct with respect to some research performed in the past has left a legacy of distrust.  Actions must be taken to ensure that, in the future, the ends of national security and the advancement of medicine will proceed only through means that safeguard the dignity, health, and safety of the individuals and groups who may be put at risk in the process.”…”We realize, however, that regulations and policies are no guarantee of ethical conduct. If the events of the past are not to be repeated, it is essential that the research community come to increasingly value the ethics of research involving human subjects as central to the scientific enterprise…To the extent that that future depends on public support, it requires the public’s trust. There can be no better guarantor of that trust than the ethics of the research community… Let the lessons of history remind us all that the best safeguard for the future is an informed and active citizenry.” http://www.hss.energy.gov/healthsafety/ohre/roadmap/achre/index.html

The difficulty of the Openness Project task was described as the “passage of time, the state of existing records, and the fact that some decisionmaking processes were never documented in written form”


http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/ [ http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/radiation/radiation/dir/mstreet/commeet/meet3/brief3.gfr/tab_f/br3f1h.txt ]; this document and similar records can be searched for with phrases using the first link]

On January 29, 1947, a meeting to establish the goals and priorities of a Health Physics program for the government was convened as an extension of the Manhattan Project. Participants were presented with an orientation and outline addressing issues and recommendations :
…”many critical problems of far reaching scope remain to be solved. Information concerning the method of production of..injurious effects in body tissues is almost completely lacking. No methods are available which might stop or delay the development of radiation injuries. No therapeutic measures are at hand to use following accidental injury due to radiation or radioactive materials. Such problems relate to the fundamental nature of living matter and demand the careful and continued attention of competently trained scientists”…
…”direct measurements of the body itself are first developed in animals and then applied to human beings”
…”the effects of acute and chronic exposure must be determined separately because of their dissimilarity”
…”actual determination of the toxicity of a substance must be made, measuring how poisonous it is, both in acute and in chronic exposures. The amounts administered are decreased until asymptomatic levels are found….some pilot work in this direction has been completed for a few compounds of uranium, plutonium and certain special oils”…
..”No practical mask, military or otherwise, which will protect against some of the worst hazards has been found yet”
[study priority recommendations]
…”study of casualty effects. Field study of fission clouds, possible injury to water supply, soil, and the like, human damage by population surveys“…
…”effect of radiation on aquatic organisms, and in particular, to study the problems arising from the discharge effluent from the Hanford plants into [illegible]”…
…”studies of the transfer of radioactive materials in food chains starting with the simpler biological forms (i.e. plankton) and following the distribution and fate of such materials as these contaminated animalcules as are successively eaten and metabolized by higher forms”
…”Feeding experiments using radioactive materials in the foods”
…”Studies under controlled conditions of the effects of radioactive materials on domestic animals…on vegetation…Fish studies…effects of internally deposited radioactive materials…the general genetical make-up of the cell, including cytoplasmic factors…using various micro-organisms”…
…”effects..on blood constituents and blood forming organs as well as on the nervous system”…
…”Cooperative research arrangements are being made with the Universities of Tennessee, Vanderbilt, Washington (St. Louis), U, Penn, Johns Hopkins and Carnegie Institution…close cooperation with the NIH and the NCI has been set up…health physics research is to be extended”…
…”the records obtained by this group are of medico-legal importance”
…”following is a nearly complete list of the substances on which studies of this type are necessary:
(1) Uranium and its compounds…oxides, nitrate, chlorides, bromide, tetra and hexafluoride, sodium and ammonium diurantes…
(2) chain of heavy metals : uranium x1 and x2, radium and polonium
…[to] “develop methods of determining the amount of plutonium, polonium, uranium, etc. that are fixed in the body”
…”study new methods of radioactive waste disposal”…
…”help in the design of new buildings”…
…”Carry out ‘sky-shine’ experiments”…
…”study effects of high energy radiation on tissue”…
…”set up tables, rules, regulations, etc.”…
…”train health physicists for other atomic energy sites, for those universities and labs that have radiation problems, as well as for the Army and Navy”
…”Operate health physics training programs”…
…”bring to light entirely new problems with unknown hazards and unpredictable safeguards”…
…”Large scale biological work is mandatory”
…….see”Recommendations for Future Research Policy”, section B “human Testing with Special Materials”……..
[lists of participants includes MED staff, and others who will be named separately, like Hymer Friedell who gave his oral history to the DoE]

The MED Secret Wartime Conference on Fluoride Toxicity http://www.fluoridealert.org/1944-conference.htm ; “It was recommended that a program be arranged by the Public Health Service since some of their members have more exhaustive studies into the biological effects of fluorine and it’s compounds….it was contemplated that those companies actively engaged in the production of F, F2, and fluorides be invited”… [DuPont, Kellex, ALCOA, Harshaw, Mallincrodt, etc.]

1933 – “Chronic Fluorine Intoxication”, Floyd de Eds, Medicine (Baltimore), vol12, pp1-60


http://www.gwu/~nsarchiv/radiation/dir/mstreet/commeet/meet8/brief8/tab_f/br8f1l.txt  (National Security Archive documents)


The Health Physics Society Journal http://www.hps.org/hpspublications/journal.html

Oak Ridge Institute http://www.orau.org/about-orau/history/1948.aspx

UCSF http://history.library.ucsf.edu/1940_postwar.html


Human Experimentation

Dr. Eugene Saenger, obit http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/11/us/11saenger.html?ei=5088&en=c989e18a24916b02&ex=1349755200&adxnnl=3&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&adxnnlx=1194876855-P3gl+zb06nnT3ugwdTwhgA


Human Experimentation – http://www.netti.fi/~makako/mind/radiatio.htm


While officials have dallied, dedicated reporters, angry victims, and a handful of government whistleblowers have exposed a pattern of secrecy and deception. A brief sampling of some of the macabre, secret human experiments uncovered by Welsome and others is chilling.

  • * In 1945, Albert Stevens, a 58-year old California house painter suffering from a huge stomach ulcer, was injected with doses of plutonium 238 and 239 equivalent to 446 times the average lifetime exposure. *12 Doctors recommended an operation and told his children he had only six months to live. For the next year, scientists collected plutonium-laden urine and fecal samples from Stevens and used that data in a classified scientific report, A Comparison of the Metabolism of Plutonium in Man and the Rat. There is little doubt scientists knew of the danger: The problem of chronic plutonium poisoning is a matter of serious concern for those who come in contact with this material, the report concluded.13 AEC officials in 1947 refused to release the information because it contains material, which in the opinion of the [AEC], might adversely affect the national interest. 14
  • * In 1947, doctors injected plutonium into the left leg of Elmer Allen, a 36-year-old African American railroad porter. Three days later, the leg was amputated for a supposed pre-existing bone cancer. Researchers analyzed tissue samples to determine the physiology of plutonium dispersion. *15 In 1973, scientists summoned Allen to the Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, where he was subjected to a follow-up whole body radiation scan, and his urine was analyzed to ascertain lingering levels of plutonium from the 1947 injection. *16
  • * Beginning in 1949, the Quaker Oats Company, the National Institutes of Health, and the AEC fed minute doses of radioactive materials to boys at the Fernald School for the mentally retarded in Waltham, Massachusetts, to determine if chemicals used in breakfast cereal prevented the body from absorbing iron and calcium. The unwitting subjects were told that they were joining a science club. The consent form sent to the boys’ parents made no mention of the radiation experiment. *17
  • * In 1963, 131 prison inmates in Oregon and Washington state were paid about $200 each to be exposed to 600 roentgens of radiation (100 times the allowable annual dose for nuclear workers). They signed consent forms agreeing to submit to X-ray radiation of my scrotum and testes, but were not warned about the possibility of contracting testicular cancer. Doctors later performed vasectomies on the inmates to avoid the possibility of contaminating the general population with irradiation-induced mutants. *18
  • * From 1960-71, in experiments which may have caused the most deaths and spanned the most years, Dr. Eugene Saenger, a radiologist at the University of Cincinnati, exposed 88 cancer patients to whole body radiation. *19 Many of the guinea pigs were poor African-Americans at Cincinnati General Hospital with inoperable tumors. All but one of the 88 patients have since died. *20 There is evidence that scientists forged signatures on the consent forms for the Cincinnati experiments. Gloria Nelson testified before the House that her grandmother, Amelia Jackson, had been strong and still working before she was treated by Dr. Saenger. Following exposure to 100 rads of whole body radiation (about 7,500 chest X-rays), Amelia Jackson bled and vomited for days and became permanently disabled. Jackson testified that the signa- ture on her grandmother’s consent form was forged.21


The Secret Wilson Memorandum

“Around the same time that the 1974 National Research Act was enacted, a scandal arose surrounding the discovery of secret Cold War chemical experiments conducted by the CIA and DOD [MKUltra]. The review of these experiments led to the rediscovery of the previously secret 1953 Wilson memorandum“…http://hss.energy.gov/healthsafety/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap3_4.html ..”(Documents show that the CIA participated in at least two of the DOD committees whose discussions, in 1952, led up to the issuance of the Wilson memorandum.)…the Wilson memorandum was declassified in August 1975.”

Prior to the Wilson Memorandum, issued Feb.17, 1953, the military staff characterized their ‘problem’ and prepared official documents to appear as conforming to the regulations imposed by the Nuremberg Code, requiring the informed consent of experimental subjects, as in this archived document from October of 1952: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/radiation/dir/mstreet/commeet/meet3/brief3.gfr/tab_h/br3h2b.txt
“The Problem

Approval of the recommendation that human volunteers
be used in experimental research in order to reach a realistic
evaluation of protective methods against biological,
chemical and/or atomic agents of warfare.

Factors Bearing on the Problem

1.  Research which has been conducted in this field
has been restricted in most part to experimental animals.

2.  Results based entirely on animal experimentation
cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of identical
human reaction to similar situations.  Such methods of
extrapolation have in the past and will continue in the
future to lead experimenters into serious errors.

3.  In order for realistic evaluations to be made of
the defensive measure which should be adopted to protect our
Nation against a potential enemy attack with any one of the
three types of agents, it is necessary to secure additional
information which can be secured only through the use of
human subjects.”

This document is fundamentally a re-statement of the Nuremberg Code which the Wilson Memorandum was designed to bypass. The Nuremberg Code, 1947 http://www.cirp.org/library/ethics/nuremberg/


Health Physics organization (1947)

Health Safety Advisory Committee, 1947
in 4 divisions
Dr. Joseph Aub – Harvard
Dr. Hymer Friedell – Western Reserve
Dr. Robert S. Stone – UCBerkeley
Dr. Stafford L. Warren – UCLA
Dr. Austin M. Brues – Argonne Nat’l Lab
Joseph G. Hamilton – UCBerkeley
M.E. Jacobs – UPenn
Dr. Hans Muller – UIndiana
Dr. Simeon T. Cantril – Hanford, WA
Andrew H. Dowdy – URochester
James Sterner – Eastman Kodak
Dr. G. Failla – Columbia
K.Z. Morgan – Clinton Lab, Monsanto
H.M. Parker
(non-assigned persons)
Los Alamos – Louis Hempelmann (of URochester)
Brookhaven – (not yet appointed)
US Public Health Service – Dr. E. Williams
Army – Col. James P. Cooney
Navy – Cap. George Lyon
Monsanto – (2 locations), Dayton Ohio and Clinton Lab (Oak Ridge,TN)
“The genetic effects of radiation as manifested in the development of abnormal individual types from changes in the hereditary mechanism” (advisor, K.Z. Morgan)
University of Rochester – NY (advisor, Andrew H. Dowdy), charged with the study of “the time intensity factor in radiation and development of methods of producing instantaneous exposure to radiation (the Abomb effect) and the study of metabolism of plutonium, polonium, radium, etc, in human subjects”
– experimental surgery
– bone-marrow transplantation
– effect of folic acid and rutin on marrow regeneration
– iodine study on thyroid
– blood histamine effects, coagulation effects (histogemetics)
– artificially induced radioactive elements like chromium, nickel, etc.
– behavior of fission products in soils
– ‘fission recoils’
– “uranium compounds that will localize in organs other than the liver and spleen”
– whole body radiation studies
– Pharmacology division to make “inhalation” studies
Berkeley ‘Rad Lab’ staff as members of the Manhattan Project http://www.mbe.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/rad_lab_staff.htm
                Rad Lab Staff, 1939

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