http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_lung , invented in 1928
The Jewish Hospital for Joint Diseases (HJD)- est.1905 by the Frauenthal and Rothschild families; orthopedic surgery (currently part of NYU) http://www.nyuhjd.org/hjd/about_us/history.html [see Henry Frauenthal page https://polioforever.wordpress.com/henry-frauenthal/ ] Corrective surgery for polio http://www.post-polio.org/edu/pphnews/pph11-3a.html
Sister Elizabeth Kenny developed rigorous methods of hot-packing and physical therapy — “On April 14, 1940, Elizabeth Kenny, a broad-shouldered Australian Army nurse in a wide-brimmed hat, disembarked from an ocean liner, and stepped onto a pier in Los Angeles…She lacked formal education, was not above obfuscation about her qualifications…She was a provincial woman, a homemade nurse without solid professional credentials, practicing what doctors (nearly all men) saw as insubordination….Sister Kenny knew that the medical establishment, at least in Australia, would not tolerate her….If her formulation of the problem was homespun, it was leavened by hope and enthusiasm. A redeeming positivism ran through out the Kenny method. She energetically set upon the affected arms and legs of her patients.” http://www.skally.net/ppsc/swaim.html
“Sister Kenny came to Minnesota in 1940 and established the Sister Kenny Institute in 1942…This archival collection (1937-1992) documents Kenny’s life and career http://www.mnhs.org/library/tips/history_topics/91kenny.html
The Clinics, historic and contemporary
Mayo Clinic – “Frank Krusen, MD established the Physical Medicine Program at the Mayo Clinic in 1936… Krusen coined the word ‘Physiatrist’ to describe..physicians who were..adding physical medicine to medical therapeutics to treat neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Krusen wrote the first widely used textbook..in 1941..[and] is recognized as the ‘Father of Physical Medicine’. http://www.physiatry.org/Field_history.cfm
San Francisco Children’s Hospital – world’s busiest polio hospital in its time
Warm Springs GA http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roosevelt_Warm_Springs_Institute_for_Rehabilitation; October 1924, during FDR and Eleanor’s first visit to the Warm Springs spa, he wrote to his mother, “When I get back I am going to have a long talk with Mr. George Foster Peabody who is really the controlling interest in the property. I feel that a great ‘cure’ for infantile paralysis..could be established here.” http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/FDRvisit.htm
Methylene Blue http://www.answers.com/topic/methylene-blue ; used extensively in veterinary care for ‘nitrate toxicosis’, methylene blue was first applied in human medicine as an anti-malarial and was found to be an effective treament for polio
Ascorbic Acid – “In 1949 Klenner described his successful treatment of polio…using ascorbic acid. The main value of his work is in showing that any viral disease can be successfully brought under control with ascorbic acid if the proper large doses are used…..Millions have been spent in unsuccessful attempts to find a nontoxic, effective virucide….while, harmless, inexpensive, and non-toxic ascorbic acid has been within easy reach.”—Dr. Irwin Stone
Vitamin C paper by Frederick R. Klenner, M.D., F.C.C.P. http://www.orthomed.com/klenner.htm “The Treatment of Poliomyelitis and Other Virus Diseases with Vitamin C: Klenner, Southern Medicine & Surgery, July, 1949 “The treatment employed [in the poliomyelitis epidemic in North Carolina in 1948, 60 cases] was vitamin C in massive doses… given like any other antibiotic every two to four hours. The initial dose was 1000 to 2000 mg., depending on age. Children up to four years received the injections intramuscularly … For patients treated in the home the dose schedule was 2000 mg. by needle every six hours, supplemented by 1000 to 2000 mg. every two hours by mouth … dissolved in fruit juice … All patients were clinically well after 72 hours. Where spinal taps were performed, it was the rule to find a reversion of the fluid to normal after the second day of treatment.”
The pools at Warm Springs
“It was a sort of coincidence that brought Warm Springs, Ga. to Mr. Roosevelt’s attention. Three years ago Louis Joseph, a New Yorker who formerly lived at Columbus, hit upon the idea of trying Warm Springs as the locale for a fight against the effects of infantile paralysis. [Joseph helped arrange and stayed with Roosevelt on his first visit to Warm Springs.] He was in far worse shape than Mr. Roosevelt, it is said, but he bathed persistently in the waters of Warm Springs, where the pool has a natural temperature of 90 degrees the year round… When Roosevelt returned to Warm Springs in the spring of 1926, he was ready to purchase much of the property himself. Loyless had died and Peabody was prepared to sell the properties… [FDR] established the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation in January 1927. It was a non-stock, non-profit institution, incorporated by Roosevelt, Peabody, Basil O’Connor, Herbert N. Straus, and Louis Howe. Dr. [LeRoy] Hubbard was named chief physiotherapist and director of nurses.”
George Foster Peabody, 1852-1938, investment banker; deputy chair of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1914-1921); married Katrina (Nichols) in 1920, widow of his friend and partner Spencer Trask (president of Edison Illuminating Co.); moved to the Trask estate ‘Yaddo’ in Saratoga Springs, NY; died at his winter home in Warm Springs http://rjohara.net/peabody/gfpeabody; Katrina died in 1922 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katrina_Trask
Herbert N. Straus— son of Isador Straus, co-owner (with Nathan Straus) of R.H. Macy’s department stores. Isador Straus & wife died in the Titanic sinking, 1912. Herbert’s father and uncles were renown in New York politics. Oscar Solomon Straus was a Cabinet member under Theodore Roosevelt, as Secretary of Commerce and Labor http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Oscar_Straus.html; Nathan Straus, dedicated WZO Zionist, turned his personal fortunes to building Israel and pasteurizing milk. Family information: www.straushistoricalsociety.org; The Ruination of Milk http://www.rocfern.com/jennlake/TheRuinationofMilk.html
Louis McHenry Howe (1871-1936), FDR’s “shadow” and political strategist http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_McHenry_Howe
GEORGIA WARM SPRINGS FOUNDATION
FDR’s personal and highly commendable struggle to regain use of his legs after a 1921 polio attack led him to the mineral waters of Georgia Warm Springs. Regaining some strength, FDR decided to convert the springs, derelict and almost unused, into a business proposition to aid other polio victims.
Unfortunately, the precise source of the major funds used to develop Georgia Warm Springs cannot be determined from the FDR files as they exist today. The FDR folder on Georgia Warm Springs is relatively skimpy, and it is exceedingly unlikely that it contains all the papers relating to development of the project. The folder gives the appearance of having been screened before release to the Hyde Park archives. There is no public record of the funding for Georgia Warm Springs. Given FDR’s tight personal finances during the 1920s, it is unlikely that the funds came from his personal resources. We do have some evidence for three sources of funds. First, it is more than likely that his mother, Mrs. James Roosevelt, was one. In fact, Eleanor Roosevelt wrote FDR, “Don’t let yourself in for too much money and don’t make Mama put in much, for if she lost she’d never get over it!”3 Second, Edsel B. Ford is reported to have contributed funds to build the enclosure of the swimming pool, but was not a trustee of the foundation. Third, and most important, the original property was owned by corporate socialist, George Foster Peabody. According to FDR’s son, Elliott Roosevelt, there was a sizeable personal note on the property itself, and this note was probably held by Peabody:
On April 29, 1926, he acquired the derelict property, where Loyless was running ever deeper into debt. At the peak of his obligations as the new proprietor, Father had precisely $201,667.83 invested in the place in the form of a demand note, which was not completely paid off until after his death, and then only from a life insurance policy he had taken out in Warm Springs’ favor. The $200,000-plus represented more than two thirds of everything he owned. It was the only time he took such a monumental risk. Mother was terrified that if this went the way of so many of his business ventures, none of us boys could go to college, a fate which I, for one, was more than ready to face.4
It is significant that Elliott Roosevelt reports the existence of a $200,000 demand note that was not paid off until FDR’s death. It is a reasonable supposition, moreover, that the funds were put up by some or all of the trustees. This places FDR in the same position as Woodrow Wilson, beholden to his Wall Street creditors. As these trustees were among the most powerful men in Wall Street, the charge that FDR was “in the grip of the bankers” is at least plausible.
It is therefore reasonable to suppose that the funds for Georgia Warm Springs were put up, or were under the control of, the trustees of the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation and the associated Meriweather Reserve. The trustees of the foundation in 1934 and their main business affiliations are listed below:
Georgia Warm Springs Foundation: Trustees in 19345
|Name of Trustee6||Chief Affiliations|
|Franklin D. Roosevelt||President of the United States of America|
|Basil O’Connor||Attorney, 120 Broadway, former law partner of FDR|
|Jeremiah Milbank||Director, Chase National Bank of N.Y.|
|James A. Moffett||Vice President & director, Standard Oil of New Jersey|
|George Foster Peabody||Original owner of the property and holder of the note on Georgia Warm Springs|
|Leighton McCarthy||Director of Aluminum, Ltd (Canadian subsidiary of ALCOA)|
|Eugene S. Wilson||President, American Telephone & Telegraph (195 Broadway)|
|William H. Woodin||Secretary of the Treasury under FDR|
|Henry Pope||Director of Link-Belt Company|
|Cason J. Callaway||President of Callaway Mills, Inc. of New York|
The trustees of Georgia Warm Springs obviously tie FDR to Wall Street. The most prominent of these were Eugene Smith Wilson (1879-1973), a vice president of American Telephone and Telegraph of 195 Broadway, New York City. Wilson also held directorships in numerous other telephone companies, including Northwestern and Southwestern Bell and the Wisconsin Telephone Company. In 1919 he was attorney for Western Electric, then became counsel for A. T. & T. before appointment as vice president in 1920. Wilson had a long association with the campaign against polio, became associated with Franklin D. Roosevelt, and in the mid-1930s was a member of the investment committee of the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation. His fellow directors on A. T. & T. included John W. Davis, who turns up in the Butler Affair (see Chapter 10).
Another of the Georgia Warm Springs trustees was James A. Moffett, a vice president of Standard Oil of New Jersey. Walter Teagle of the same company was one of the key administrators of NRA.
Trustee Jeremiah Milbank was director of the Rockfeller-controlled Chase National Bank and the Equitable Trust Company.
Trustee William H. Woodin was a director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York from 1926 to 1931 and was appointed Secretary of the Treasury by Franklin D. Roosevelt after strongly supporting FDR’s 1932 election bid. Woodin resigned within six months, but because of ill health, not for any lack of interest in holding the Treasury** position.
Trustee George Peabody has been identified in the previous volume7 and was prominently associated with the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
7. Sutton, Bolshevik Revolution, op. cit.
polioforever>>>*US Treasury had jurisdiction over the Public Health Service; previous secretary Andrew W. Mellon hugely expanded PHS (military) hospital-building c.1930, before leaving the Treasury (1932) for an appointment as Ambassador to the Court of St. James (UK).