Due to an overflow of information from the Doctor Mary’s Monkey page concerning the relationships of JFK assassination conspirators within the Polio Story, this page will sort, review and continue the theme. For an assassination perspective concerning nuclear trafficking, read here: the JFK Conspiracy Con http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2011/11/06/the-jfk-conspiracy-con/
The author of Dr. Mary’s Monkey, Ed Haslam, has stated in audio interviews that the people in his particular JFK/Mary Sherman murder scheme, (more directly Dr. Alton Ochsner), were part of a “deep vein of power in this country” although how this may be true is not addressed. Families like the Sterns and Rosenwalds are undoubtedly integral to the power structure and intimately connected to the prosecution of WWII. In ways direct and indirect, most of these characters had ties to the nuclear industry/military complex. This page is currently set up to be a rolling notebook –an inquiry into blood ties and social connections– that may interest JFK assassination researchers. It’s primary aim is to search out the links that bring JFK research, Israel’s bomb project, and polio together beginning with historical background.
“It was Nov 22, and Jack was reading The Dallas Morning News. There was a full-page, black-bordered ad denouncing him for signing the nuclear test-ban treaty.” –p343, All Too Human, 1996, Edward Klein
“[The Rockefeller Foundation] would have preferred to distance themselves from the dubious honor bestowed by Ernest O. Lawrence who unwittingly boasted that ‘if it hadn’t been for the Rockefeller Foundation, there would have been no atomic bomb.’ ” [p219, The Molecular Vision of Life, 1993, Lily E. Kay]http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2010/11/03/molecular-vision-rockefeller-science/
“Kennedy said the United States should postpone resumption of nuclear tests indefinitely — as long as the Soviet Union did not resume tests and as long as negotiations for a permanent ban continued amicably. If negotiations collapsed, Kennedy said, U.S. tests should be confined to underground and outer-space explosions. Nov. 2, 1959.” http://www.jfklibrary.org/Research/Ready-Reference/JFK-Miscellaneous-Information/Voting-Record-and-Stands-on-Issues-Page-8.aspx
Israel and The Bomb, Avner Cohen http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/israel/book.htm
Suggested reading on the JFK assassination: the book FINAL JUDGEMENT by Michael Collins Piper (downloadable) http://www.ety.com/HRP/booksonline/finaljudgement.pdf Piper makes a case that JFK was thwarting the nuclear-weapons ambition of Israel. He writes “Israel achieved its nuclear weapons capabilities precisely because of the assassination of President Kennedy.” He notes an American Free Press headline: “New Evidence Ties Israel’s Nuclear Weapons Program to the New Orleans Connection in the JFK Conspiracy“. MCP relates that an updated edition of Final Judgement included new information from a “source with intimate, high-level knowledge about the NUMEC nuclear plant in Pennsylvania that smuggled nuclear material to Israel (see Ch.8) provided documentation..that the family of Edith Rosenwald Stern.. were key financiers behind NUMEC. Mrs. Stern was the closest friend of Clay Shaw… Another NUMEC investor was Pittsburgh’s CIA-connected ‘right-wing’ billionaire Richard [Mellon] Scaife…”
* “Jonas Salk developed his polio vaccine in a Sarah [Mellon] Scaife-funded laboratory” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Mellon_Scaife; Richard King Mellon (son of Richard Beatty Mellon and brother to Sarah Mellon Scaife): “..One of his more notable achievements was co-sponsoring (with the March of Dimes) the research that led Jonas Salk to the discovery of the vaccine that ended polio.” http://www.answers.com/topic/richard-king-mellon; Alcoa made the fuel for Oak Ridge: “The heart of the X-10 site, as the Laboratory was often called, was an experimental reactor far larger and more advanced than Fermi’s Chicago pile: a graphite cube 24 feet on each side, with seven-foot-thick concrete walls for radiation shielding. The reactor was riddled with 1,248 channels for air cooling and uranium fueling; the fuel—60,000 cylindrical “slugs” of uranium—was canned, literally, by the Aluminum Company of America.” http://www.ornl.gov/info/swords/swords.shtml
: …”To understand the Mellons of today, you need to understand their origins. There are four branches of the family, tracing back to the mid-1850s… It was [Thomas Mellon’s sons] Andrew and his brother Richard Beatty Mellon who took..investment risks on coal, steel, aluminum, oil pipelines, railroads –thus supporting Pittsburgh’s rise”… http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/07182/798280-28.stm
[see the Fluoride page] “Pittsburgh, where the sky is plumed by the tall smokestacks of the greatest radium reduction plants in the world.”
[p4, “Pierre Curie” by Marie Curie, 1923] In the 1920s, a gram of radium cost between $100,000 and $120,000. It is one million times more radioactive than uranium with a half-life of 1,600 years. The first radium industry in the world developed in France.
Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago
Largely unknown to the public is the many and varied sites that made up the Manhattan Project. The University of Chicago’s Metallurgical Lab (Met Lab) included a location inside the Museum of Science and Industry, created at the urging of Rosenwald patriarch, Julius Rosenwald
, who proposed the museum project in 1921
and provided $7 million for its development. The MSI took over the standing Fine Arts building in Chicago: “Vacant since 1920, the building required extensive renovation, which began in 1929.” The public was invited to tour the new MSI in 1933 during the “Century of Progress Exposition” world’s fair when 10% of its space was available for exhibits, but delays and unprofitability plagued the MSI until “A turning point came in 1940, when the board of directors lured Major Lenox R. Lohr
(1891-1968), the head of the National Broadcasting Company..to its presidency.” http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/859.html
; Lohr earned his stripes in the Army Corps of Engineers, edited the ACE journal ‘The Military Engineer’ until 1929, resigned the Army and joined the Naval Reserves as a Lt. Commander (1929-1941). Lohr was NBC president from 1934 to 1940, under RCA parent David Sarnoff. RCA was a subsidiary of General Electric until GE divested in 1936 –GE repurchased RCA in 1986. “During his twenty-eight years as head of the Museum, Lohr also organized.. the Military-Industry Conferences in 1955-1957.” http://www.uic.edu/depts/lib/specialcoll/services/rjd/findingaids/LLohrf.html
Rosenwald’s museum, and its subsequent use for the Manhattan Project, is one more enterprise that gives evidence of early atomic weapons development covertly played out in the 1920s and ’30s. I propose in an article, Atomic Power No Contest, that 1921 was a significant year: Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard formed a partnership in Prague after Einstein’s first visit to the U.S. with Chaim Weizmann. An unpublicized agenda for the US visit may have been to share secrets about nuclear advances. It’s not absolutely certain that Szilard was the man who offered to show Einstein how to produce chain reaction in 1921 (assumed with radium) but someone did
(ref. Ronald C.Clark, Einstein, His Life and Times
) and however early a sustainable chain reaction may have been demonstrated, Szilard’s patent filing for a nuclear reactor given to the British Admiralty in 1934 gives away an alternate history. Einstein and Szilard shared ‘refrigeration’ patents from their collaboration on equipment used today
in cooling nuclear reactors. Those refrigeration designs may have been essential blueprints for the super-cooling of thermonuclear liquid that enabled H-bomb production to advance in the 1950s.
According to Jewish sources: “In 1921 Szilard gave up his engineering studies and enrolled at the University of Berlin, where he studied physics.. [and] earned his doctorate –cum laude– in August 1922… Szilard began postdoctoral work at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin with Hermann Mark… Szilard’s associates in various ventures included Isbert Adams
, Arno Brasch
, T.M. Vogelstein, R. Kammitzer and Benjamin Liebowitz
… Szilard visited the United States several times in the mid-1930s, and he began to consider a move to America as the prospects for war in Europe increased. In 1938, at the time of the Munich pact, Szilard was a visiting lecturer.. [and] decided to shift his residence to New York.” http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Szilard.html
. Before coming to the U.S. in 1938, however, Szilard left Germany shortly after the Reichstag Fire on an invitation from Lord Beveridge (London School of Economics) and Frederick Lindemann (Oxford physicist and war counselor, raised to the peerage as Lord Cherwell) to help the British “save science”. Szilard would later say he conceived of fission and nuclear reactors while standing on a London street-corner in 1933.
” [Hermann] Mark had been driven out of Europe in 1938 and ended up doing research for a Canadian paper company in Ontario. By 1940 he was running a laboratory at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn; two years later he became dean of faculty and turned the institute into a haven for Jewish refugees, including Chaim Weizmann. “The whole gang came to America” said Mark, who, when interviewed for [the Samson Option] was the sole survivor of that period.” [quote from Seymour Hersh, The Samson Option]. Mark is called the ‘father of polymer science’. http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2010/11/08/atomic-power-no-contest/
Ontario Canada would later become the site of the first production reactors in North America and the highest concentration of Canadian polio victims.
was the first country to mine uranium. The world’s first uranium mine was at Port Radium, NWT, on the shore of Great Bear Lake. Canada was also the first country to refine uranium on an industrial scale. Uranium for the World War II Atomic Bomb Project was processed in secrecy at Port Hope, Ontario.”– 65 miles from Toronto http://www.ccnr.org/nuclear_primer.html
; Port Hope is on the central shore of Lake Ontario, the most easterly of the 5 Great Lakes, although before the 20th century, Ontario was a vast territory sharing a U.S. border across Minnesota through New York, encompassing all the Great Lakes and the northern territories to Hudson Bay.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Ontario
>>>polioforever: commercial uranium mining was occurring on the Colorado Plateau in the 1870s, already known and used as a steel-hardening alloy in several countries. Canada’s contribution at the start of the 1930s was largely to impact the radium trade and compete with the Belgian source from the Congo, the Shinkolobwe mine operated by the Union Miniere du Haut Katanga in central Africa.
Gilbert LaBine discovered uranium deposits in the Great Bear Lake region… From 1960 until 1985 an ice road corridor from Great Slave Lake up the Marian River, and then down the Camsell River system, serviced silver mines at Great Bear Lake.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Bear_Lake
; 1931 – Canada ships its first radium from Port Radium and becomes the largest exporter of uranium http://www.ccnr.org/port_radium.html [see the X-ray and Radium page for more]
“Exploration for uranium ore began in earnest in 1942 under direction of the government for military purposes. A wartime ban on private prospecting was lifted in 1947, which led in the early 1950s to the discovery of major deposits near Elliot Lake, Ontario, and northern Saskatchewan. By 1959, 23 mines and 19 treatment plants were in operation, and Canada’s C$330 million in uranium exports exceeded the value for every other mineral.” http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf49.html;
The McArthur River Mine in Saskatchewan, discovered in 1988, is the world’s largest deposit of highest grade uranium ore ever discovered. In 1988 (coincident?) the World Health Organization declared an all-out vaccination campaign for Polio Eradication.
Author Nicholas Faith writes, “The Bronfman saga starts in the 1890s in the bleak plains of Saskatchewan..and then, after 1920 [the family] started to supply liquor across the forty-ninth parallel into a newly dry United States.. as distillers as well as merchants, they continued to supply their thirsty neighbors until 1933, but they became truly, seriously rich only in the 1930s and 1940s..” [p3, The Bronfmans]
In a broad variety of manifestations, JFK was confronting elements of the old revolutionary Carbonari “coal” traders who emerged as freemasonic societies during the Napoleonic Wars. The Carbonari ceased to officially exist not long after a papal order was issued against the Sicilian branch for publishing a manuscript called the Alta Vendita (I guess here a translation meaning something like “the highest transaction” or “transformation”) which advocated infiltrating the Catholic Church for its overthrow and “reform”. To a great extent, these influences leading to the quasi-Marxist Revolutions of 1848 and the American Civil War can only be guessed in a general sense, but in some cases the lines of attachment present themselves clearly. The idea of who the Carbonari are, in thought and deed, carries through as those who gain the most from the exploitation of natural resources as masters of systems; industrial, political, educational and economic –cultivating henchmen with PhDs in philosophy, physics and chemistry and harnessing the intrepid exuberance of “useful idiots” willing to stand in the light among their own peers, rewarded by a sense of importance. Among that type of henchmen, who developed into JFK adversaries around the margins of Washington’s business, were the lobbies of the NIH.
Collectively known as the “Lasker Syndicate“, supporters of the NIH who exerted unprecendented influence on Congress and health policy included the executive boards of the private philanthropies; the American Cancer Society, the American Heart Association, Lung Association and more. The ACS was taken over in 1945 by Albert D. and Mary Woodward Lasker. At the time, privately raised funds were far greater than what the federal government spent on research. The private monies were largely spent on the organizations’ self-promotion and “seed money” in the style of Rockefeller philanthropy, designed to influence the government to takeover basic funding. Between 1945 and 1962, the annual NIH budget rocketed from approximately $2 million yearly to $800 million. But in ’62, things changed. The NIH experienced its first budgetary cutback since WWII –a trimming of $60 million (yet its parent department, HEW, tripled its income in ’62)– and also, for the first time, had to face accountability with Congress for its spending. The NIH boosters are not ‘the usual suspects’ in JFK assassination circles, but they were clearly committed to a culture of ‘defense’ summed up by E.L. Doctorow in the preface of American Prometheus (Robert Oppenheimer biography): “We have had the bomb on our minds since 1945. It was first our weaponry and then our diplomacy, and now it’s our economy. How can we suppose that something so monstrously powerful would not.. compose our identity? The great golem we have made against our enemies is our culture, our bomb culture…” Nuclear technology, as this blog articulates, was first applied and proliferated as medically necessary ; radium, x-rays, fluoride, particle accelerators –biological weapons first in the culture of medicine.
Bomb culture in the U.S. was almost entirely an “import”.
The legend of the GOLEM
: “A golem is a being in Jewish folklore..made of inanimate material [“clay”]..brought to life by a rabbi… Legends vary.. although Hebrew incantations would usually be involved… the rabbi would write the Hebrew word emet
, meaning ‘truth’ on the golem’s forehead to activate it. To deactivate it, the rabbi would erase the letter aleph
, leaving met
, the Hebrew word for ‘death’ .” http://judaism.wikia.com/wiki/Golem;
The first golem is said to have been created by Rabbi Loew of Prague http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judah_Loew_ben_Bezalel
Doctorow’s allusion to the golem (c.1995) was deeply symbolic in its relation to the Manhattan Project and highly accurate in describing biological manipulation with radioactive “clay” inasmuch as genetic material is coded in letters.
, the man who eventually chaired the Atomic Energy Commission, went from his teenage years as Herbert Hoover’s assistant on the Belgian Relief Commission to a hospital president in his twenties, where he presided over the Rothschild’s Hospital for Joint Diseases in New York City (established by the Frauenthal brothers). During the 1930s as a partner in Kuhn, Loeb & Co. investment bank, Strauss made private deals in Cuba
for nuclear technology involving Leo Szilard’s associates, Isbert Adams (Havana broker) and physicist Arno Brasch (who were blood relatives). Even the wikipedia has updated its entry for Strauss: “Strauss established a fund for physics research that could lead to better radiation treatment for cancer patients. The fund supported Arno Brasch who was working on producing artificial radioactive material with bursts of x-rays… Through Szilard, Strauss met other nuclear physicists..” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewis_Strauss
But the wikipedia is wrong on the count concerning Strauss’s motivation on cancer research: “Strauss’ mother died of cancer in 1935″ –indeed wrong: Rosa Lichtenstein Strauss introduced Edward Teller to her son in 1948
after a speech Teller had made at Temple Emanu-El on behalf of the World Federation
(Lewis Strauss was president of the synagogue, 1938-1948). It may not have been their first meeting but it certainly was a memorable one for Teller. Strauss and Teller evolved a close friendship and staunch political alliance after the encounter. Years earlier, Strauss and his friends, William J. Donovan and Max Epstein, introduced Albert Lasker and Mary Woodward to each other and they in turn made Lifetime Trustees of the American Cancer Society of their friends, including Alton Ochsner of Tulane. The Sloan-Kettering Institute was also established in 1945 (building completed over 1947) which Strauss came to dominate during the 1950s. His early period on the AEC included some notable conflicts over the distribution of radiopharmaceuticals, which he endeavored to restrict. Strauss’s actions may have been a boon to radioactive drug trafficking. The United States had a very limited supply before WWII, coming mainly from Canada and Lawrence’s Berkeley lab in the 1930s.
Researcher Eustace Mullins conclusively published that Lewis Strauss of Virginia controlled the political “Byrd” machine– a situation of enormous importance to Kennedy in his coming presidential campaign. Virginia Democrats would not support JFK unless Lyndon Johnson joined his ticket. Arthur Krock wrote in his Memoirs, “Harry F. Byrd of Virginia, the most conservative and influential Democrat in Congress, was in charge of the Johnson-for-President movement in the South..” [p360] Louisiana too, on the word of Hale Boggs, “said its consummation would assure Louisiana to the Democratic electoral column.” [p362].
The World Federation
, going under various names, had merged into a large organization in 1947, prompted by the 1945 effort of the Committee to Frame a World Constitution
which convened at the University of Chicago. Cord Meyer Jr.
was elected as the merged WF’s first president. http://www.umsl.edu/~thomaskp/cord.htm
; Cord Meyer, Mary Pinchot Meyer, JFK and LSD: according to author Peter Janney, Meyer “claimed on his death bed that he, William King Harvey, Frank Sturgis, David Atlee Phillips, and David Sanchez Morales organized the assassination of JFK.” http://www.postchronicle.com/news/breakingnews/article_212407111.shtml
“Before World War I, the I.G. Farben consortium was known to Americans as the “Big Six”, known for its chemical trade in coal-tar (aniline) derivatives. Howard Ambruster, author of “Treason’s Peace: German Dyes and American Dupes” insisted that Farben “is and must be recognized as a cabalistic organization which.. operates a far-flung and highly efficient espionnage machine –the ultimate purpose being world conquest– and a world super-state directed by Farben.”…Farben was consolidated in 1926 by the Warburgs, and the German chemical business which had been fractured during WWI, regained its American affiliates as a multiplex of drug, dye, and chemical entities: “When World War II began, Farben was not in such complete control of the coal-tar dye industry in the U.S. as its predecessors had been in 1914, but in 1939 Farben’s American drug and dyetstuff affiliates were much more powerful than those ‘Big Six’ agents who had so effectively prevented the establishment of our munitions industry prior to the first World War”…”Farben had crept back through side doors and cellar windows and seized a good half”…”The Oil Industry came next on Farben’s agenda.. [where]new developments..promised to be among the most important munitions of the next war..” …The Standard [Oil]-Farben/Rockefeller-Warburg conglomerate created by the 1927 alliance became the most powerful industrial cartel in world history… The [previous] Rockefeller–Warburg merger.. brought about the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank.”…
…” ‘During the period 1925-27, [Vladimir] Vernadsky established the radiology laboratory in Russia and proposed a mission of developing nuclear fission as a principal source of industrial power… the feasibility of a nuclear-fission chain-reaction was well-known in relevant circles prior to 1938
In fact, the Soviets and Europeans in general were far ahead of the U.S. during the interwar years. The nuclear knowledge gap was so potentially profound as to require a covert means of enabling the Americans to catch up. The climate of technology transfer had been indelibly changed by the first World War but the passage of Prohibition that closely followed the war’s end served to open (and re-open) avenues of exchange outside the purview of enforcement and accountability. By the time the Manhattan Project was created, American officials learned that “Surprisingly, [even] the Canadians were far ahead of the United States in heavy-water technology.” [p204, Energy and Conflict
“The Mafia in the United States began its activities in Cuba in the early 1920s, running rum and other alcohol. The creation of a giant criminal empire, however, began toward the end of 1933… Operations were organized under the supervision of four Mafia families, directed by Amadeo Barletta Barletta, Santo Trafficante Sr., Meyer Lansky and the Corsican Amleto Battisti y Lora… People had good reason to say that the Calabrian Amadeo Barletta Barletta was ‘the administrator of Mussolini’s family in the United States’. It was confirmed that he was an undercover spy… the FBI included him on its blacklist… but he was tipped off by the Mafia-intelligence groups based in Havana and escaped the island to take secret refuge in Argentina. When WWII ended, Barletta appeared again…
“During the 1930s, business in the Cuban capital was run directly by mafiosi with Sicilian, Corsican, Jewish or U.S. origins… Without a doubt, the most important of all the mafiosi in Cuba was.. Meyer Lansky… Originally named Maier Suchowijansky… from the 1930s until the end of 1958, no significant political event or big business deal occurred in Cuba without his involvement…
[p21] “Firstly, at the start of the 1930s, there was an accelerated penetration of the Cuban economy by financial groups controlled by the Rockefeller family (in its two branches, headed by John and William). The Rockefellers used a banking and commercial complex of great magnitude (Citibank, Chase National Bank, and the later Chase Manhattan) to reinforce imperial domination… Other groups included the Americanized German Schroeder Bank and the Sullivan & Cromwell financial complex, in which brothers John and Allen Dulles were prominent. All had sinister origins… Cuba had become one of the most important centers of international crime.” [The Mafia in Havana: a Carribean Mob Story
, by Enrique Cirules, http://books.google.com/books?id=sKIZpa5cVT8C&pg=cuba+four+mafia+families+barletta&cd=1#v=onepage&q=cuba%20four%20mafia%20
“…Ruben Fulgencio Batista Zaldívar
was born in Cuba’s Oriente Province on January 16 1901… In an uprising known as the “Revolt of the Sergeants
,” Batista took over the Cuban government on September 4, 1933… U.S. Ambassador Benjamin Sumner Welles
, sent to Cuba in April of 1933 to mediate differences between the government and opposing political groups, found an ally in Batista
… For the next decade Batista
ran the country from the background, using puppet presidents… Batista was well liked by American interests, who.. saw him as a stabilizing force with respect for American interests. It was in this time period that Batista formed a renowned friendship and business relationship with gangster Meyer Lansky that lasted over three decades… Batista opened the way for large-scale gambling in Havana, and he reorganized the Cuban state so that he and his political appointees could harvest the nation’s riches… Meyer Lansky
turned Havana into an international drug port…” http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/batista.htm
Roughly coincident with Cuba’s criminal expansion was the “miracle year” in physics –1932– followed by the ascension of Hitler in Germany (Jan.1933), a declaration of war against him by worldwide Jewry (Mar.1933), and the most intensive period of Mob violence ever to occur in the United States. Correspondingly, the Weizmann Institute of Science (then called the Daniel Sieff Institute) was established in Israel, Rockefeller Center was crowned with a statue of Prometheus and Szilard filed his reactor patent “in trust” to the British Admiralty. Essential “operations” of infrastructure for the energy needs of future Manhattan Project locations, hosted and funded by the U.S., were well under way (Hoover Dam, Tennessee Valley Authority, Grand Coulee Dam, etc.).
“All of the Mafia figures that had been repeatedly implicated in the JFK assassination were, in fact, Lansky’s frontmen –his subordinates, his underlings. In short, if ‘the Mafia’ had a hand in the killing of JFK, then Lansky had to have been one of the key players… My research..began to turn up some interesting facts relating to an Israeli connection… It is the little-discussed Permindex connection to the JFK assassination which is the tie that binds.. Israel’s Mossad, the CIA and organized crime together in a close-knit intrigue linked directly to the murder of President Kennedy.” –Michael Collins Piper, Final Judgement.
” ‘Meyer Lansky saw life entirely through a Jewish filter’ says Richard Dreyfuss who plays the legendary mobster…according to Mamet’s script, Lansky was the intermediary between Luciano and the U.S. military to enlist the Italian mafia’s help in the American invasion of Sicily. Better documented is Lansky’s role in 1947 and 1948, when he pressured..mobsters to raise money for Israel. Lansky also used his contacts on the New York waterfront to expedite forbidden arms shipments to Israel, and, according to one version, sabotage ships..to Arab nations.” http://www.jewishaz.com/jewishnews/990305/lansky.shtml
1951 was a turning point for the U.S. atomic program. Not only was the Nevada Proving Ground opened in January, but a new organizational spirit infused a national medical establishment. Among the highest ranks of the military, privileged with top secret intelligence, it was known that the Soviets had already tested hydrogen weapons. The U.S. had not yet even staged its thermonuclear experiments, according to official sources. Polio immediately tripled its 1940s occurrance. If the U.S. had lost the H-bomb race to the Soviets by a technological advantage in 1951, it improved its chances by refining, outproducing, testing and developing medical countermeasures. The imperative health concern was the acute illness of poliomyelitis –in retrospect, its correspondence to radiation was the least likely to remain hidden. Heart disease and cancer by contrast, with long-term prognoses and far greater etiologic complexity, were easy to obfuscate. A hastily staged polio vaccine experiment was arranged with gamma globulin inoculations in Provo Utah, the northern predicted fallout zone in the crossfire with the Dugway Proving Grounds. Meanwhile, Congress allowed the pesticide cause of polio to enter the record.
Preliminary H-bomb (fission-fusion) experiments were prepared in the Marshall Islands during 1952 and at home, the HeLa cancer cells (harvested in 1951 during Operation Ranger, by chance) were distributed for polio research and poliovirus cultures. The Tuskegee Institute became the prime source of HeLa cells for this purpose. Jonas Salk announced to his sponsors that he now believed he had the ‘right’ formula for the polio vaccine. By 1954, all was in place; full-scale H-bombs were being tested in the Marshalls and the Salk IPV was in field trials. The H-bomb proponents had only the task left of neutralizing their political opposition which played out as an episode known as “the Oppenheimer Case”. [Edgar Stern’s son Philip wrote a book by the same title]. Robert Oppenheimer, who had so ably directed the Los Alamos lab during WWII, lost his security clearance and was barred from the nuclear program for life –deemed to have happened at the hands of three key people; William Borden, Lewis Strauss and Edward Teller [Ernest Lawrence too, was intent on ousting Oppenheimer but in ’54 was suffering a bout of severe colitis and could not participate in the formal hearings]. In the aftermath, Teller found himself on the ‘outs’ with his scientific colleagues. To redeem him to the nation, the authors Shepley and Blair from Time-Life zealously painted Teller as a national hero to his great discomfort for deepening an already painful wedge between himself and his former physicist friends. The Shepley-Blair ’embarassment” soon led to an unpleasant meeting in Washington between Teller and the Junior Senator from Massachusetts who had recently won a Senate seat after three terms in the House. The briefly casual encounter with JFK, described as a compliment from the senator regarding the book ‘The Hydrogen Bomb’, was taken as a mocking personal insult by Teller. The scientist developed an instant dislike for the congressman. It may have affected his judgement in the years ahead, when Teller instructed his subordinates at Lawrence Livermore to make weapons in secret, contramanding the dictates of a multilateral moratorium on nuclear weapons.
The Soviets detonated their first atomic bomb on August 12, 1949. According to the authors of Energy and Conflict, within two weeks of that test, orders from Moscow authorized a thermonuclear go-ahead. Within the year, perhaps, they secretly exploded a hydrogen prototype. Fission bombs, like Fat Man and Little Boy, were known among physicists to be essential ‘triggers’ for the ulta high-temperatures required for hydrogen fusion –the penultimate “star power” that the scientists expected to someday harness for energy. Translated into weapons technology, hydrogen bombs had the potential to wipe out all life on earth and after 1945, creating such weapons fostered deep, bitter, and permanent divisions. Atomic Energy Commissioner Strauss (1946-1950), who pushed for a “Super” program under tighter security, was routinely outvoted by his fellow commissioners. The Soviet test, however, which had once been forecast as a distant possibility, breathed new life into the flailing effort. The Strauss-Teller-Lawrence alliance was staunchly backed by Senator Brien McMahon and his secretary, William Borden, on the congressional Joint Committee for Atomic Energy. President Truman, at last, was convinced on January 30, 1950 when news of Klaus Fuchs who had come to Los Alamos for the MED as a British collaborator, revealed that he had spied for the Soviets and the acquisition of the Super. “Truman on Tuesday afternoon, January 31, issued a simple dignified statement.. that by way of a symbolic gesture we were going to spend billions on an impossible weapon…” [p326, Lawrence and Oppenheimer, N.P.Davis]. It was Lewis Strauss’s 54th birthday. “It was the highest triumph [Strauss] could hope for against his four present fellow Commissioners. His plans already laid, he went to the White House and resigned, then staged a celebration at the Shoreham Hotel. Congressmen, generals, government officials and, of course, newsmen came to rejoice with him over the country’s dedication to the way of the Super.” [p327] For the next three years, private citizen Strauss functioned as a “financier” for the Rockefeller brothers and a personal consultant on atomic affairs to Eisenhower. By August 1953, a Soviet H-bomb was widely confirmed and one month later Admiral Strauss made a comeback to Washington as Eisenhower’s chief of the Atomic Energy Commission. “Strauss was to have unlimited power.” [p328, Lawrence and Oppenheimer]
“Just as some people live by the sword, we shall live by science” –Chaim Weizmann, 1948
“David Ben-Gurion was well aware of the potential role that science and technology could play… In the spring of 1952 he started his nation on the path to nuclear weapons with the creation of the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC). Ben-Gurion was acting on the recommendation of Ernst David Bergmann.. an organic chemist [who] had been expelled from the University of Berlin in 1933… From Germany [Bergmann] emigrated to Palestine, where he became the scientific director of the newly created Daniel Sieff Research Institute in Rehovot. In August 1948, he was appointed head of the scientific department of the new Israeli Defense Forces (IDF)… With the creation of the IAEC, he received a second government job: chairman of the commission.” [pp231-232, Spying On The Bomb, by Jeffrey Richelson] “Ben-Gurion resigned as Israeli prime minister and defense minister in 1953. But in early 1955 his party’s leadership, in the wake of the Lavon Affair, requested that he take charge of the Defense Ministry again. Before the end of the year he had become Prime Minister for the second time. In between he apparently decided that not only should Israel begin a nuclear energy program, but its ultimate goal should be the production of nuclear weapons. Ben-Gurion’s decision was followed by a recruiting drive by the Defense Ministry’s Research and Planning Division (EMET)” [p238] –see GOLEM– “Shimon Peres, the director general of the Ministry of Defense.. offered two basic options: purchasing a small reactor from the United States, Canada or France or attempting to obtain a much larger, more capable reactor. The cabinet considered the alternatives and chose to start small, with a reactor purchased from the United States and located at Nebi Rubin, south of Tel Aviv.” [p238, Spying On The Bomb]
“[C]onservative elements [in Congress] shuddered at the prospect of an international nuclear pool over which the United States would have only limited control. Rockefeller took it as his mission to breathe new life into the moribund Atoms for Peace initiative. In that regard, it certainly did not hurt that he had a long-standing relationship with [Lewis] Strauss, who as a Kuhn, Loeb partner, had been one of the Rockefeller brothers’ financial advisers and who had later helped with the Point Four report… under Rockefeller’s prodding, Strauss began to come around.
…”the focus of Atoms for Peace shifted to bilateral technology agreements with selected countries. The United States would share information, and in some cases provide ‘research’ atomic reactors and supplies of nuclear fuel. A number of these agreements –with Turkey, Brazil, Canada, the Philippins, and Switzerland– were pending, and Rockefeller pushed Strauss and State to move them along before..the summer [of 1955]… [What] Rockefeller had in mind was basic and blunt: the United States would make a research reactor available, free, to any nation ready to train scientists in the peaceful uses of the atom. Rockefeller formed an atomic energy study group –essentially himself, Ruebhausen, and Stacy May– and began churning out memos to the President… Eisenhower..saw the peaceful propagation of atomic energy as potentially one of his greatest achievements in office…” [p567, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller, Cary Reich]
But, “What Israel wanted was an upgraded version of the reactor that the [Commisariat l’Energie Atomique, CEA, in France] had planned to provide Israel, one similar to the large G-1..reactor at Marcoule, which was capable of producing between twenty-two and thirty-three pounds of plutonium a year. In addition, Israel wanted France to provide the technology required to extract plutonium from the spent reactor fuel, and requested that Saint Gobain Nucleaire, the same company [that built] the Marcoule extraction facility, build an inderground plant attached to the reactor… It would take [another] year before the two nations were ready to sign an agreement. The political part involved the pledge, from Shimon Peres to [Christian] Pineau, that the reactor complex would be used for peaceful purposes.” [p239, Spying On The Bomb]
French nuclear history
, however, began at the turn of the 20th century producing radium, helped by the Curies, under the auspices of Jean Perrin, father of Francis Perrin
who became the chairman of France’s Commissariat l’Energie Atomique (CEA) in 1951, concurrent with the socialist government of Guy Mollet, the violent suppression of Algerian independence and cooperation with the Israelis, who “traded” intelligence on Algeria (and the U.S.) with the French. The Pasteur Institute, which served as a model of medical research for the Rockefeller (RIMR) and the Weizmann Institutes, developed polio countermeasures independently (presumably vaccines without SV40 monkey virus, but that is not known). Perrin took part in the Manhattan Project (not mentioned by wikipedia), and later returned to France and “joined a lobby of about a dozen people, composed of politicians.. military officers,..technocrats.. [and] scientists like Yves Rocard and Bertrand Goldschmidt, who..imposed on successive governments of the Fourth Republic an intensive research program to permit France to deploy nuclear weapons without any real political control from outside France. Secret departments were made up within the CEA to implement this policy as of 1954.“ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Perrin
; Jean Baptiste Perrin “is noted also for his work on X rays and cathode rays. His works include Atoms
, tr. 1923). “http://www.questia.com/library/encyclopedia/perrin_jean_baptiste.jsp
; note that Lewis Strauss, during his first stint on the AEC, objected to sending radiopharmaceuticals to France while known Communist Frederick Joliot-Curie (m. to Irene Curie) was in charge of the atomic program. Francis Perrin replaced Joliot in 1951.
*(essay to be continued)
The Stern-Rosenwald Family
Edgar B. Stern (Sr) stepped into the family cotton brokerage (Lehman, Stern & Co.), which had been established as Lehman, Newgass Co. These families intermarried http://www.british-jewry.org.uk/leedsjewry/getperson.php?personID=I26238&tree=1. Mayer Lehman and Babette Newgass were also the grandparents of (former Sec. of Treasury) Henry Morgenthau Jr.’s wife, Elinor Fatman, and maternal great-grandparents of Henry Morgenthau III and Robert Morgenthau, making cousins of the generations living at the time of WWII and the JFK assassination. Robert Morgenthau was with Robert Kennedy on Nov 22, 1963, when the word came of the Dallas shooting. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_M._Morgenthau. Henry Morganthau Sr. had been Pres. Wilson’s Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (1913-1916), following Oscar Straus in that post (under T.Roosevelt). Success for the Jews in Palestine was contingent on the success of Arabs gaining their independence from the Turks. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Morgenthau%2C_Sr; Henry Morgenthau Jr. took office as FDR’s Sec. of Treasury in Jan. of 1934. Joe Kennedy Sr. apparently aspired to be Treasury Secretary and was instead appointed the new Commissioner of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). At the time Treasury had total jurisdiction over the Public Health Service which lasted until the creation of the Federal Security Agency in 1939. [Treasury also controlled the Secret Service, which began its presidential protection duties in 1901 after the assassination of McKinley; http://washingtonexaminer.com/local/crime-punishment/2011/07/crime-history-secret-service-created] Morgenthau’s term at Treasury followed Andrew Mellon’s 12 years at the post, where Mellon began an expansive campaign of hospital building for the PHS. Under Surgeon General Reynolds “The program begun in 1933 [actually 1930] to modernize equipment in general and station hospitals continued.” http://history.amedd.army.mil/surgeongenerals/C_Reynolds.html
Lehman – “Around the turn of the century, the Lehman brothers joined forces with the firm of Goldman, Sachs and moved from cotton into the investment banking business… The family has grown to more than 600 members and includes a US Secretary of the Treasury, a member of the House of Lords, a member of the House of Commons, the Manhattan district attorney, two ambassadors, two presidents of Temple Emanu-El, a playwright, a world-renowned art collector (the Lehman Wing of the Metropolitan Museum) and a large number of investment bankers, educators, judges, lawyers, a restaurateur, a boostore owner, two heads of major American corporations, a New York State park commissioner and a group of foundation executives… Four generations later are Morgenthaus, Loebs, Bronfmans, Bernhards, Altschuls, Lewisohns, Goodharts, Limburgs and many others, all direct descendants of this one couple. [Mayer Lehman and Babette Newgass]” http://www.syracuseuniversitypress.syr.edu/fall-2007/lots-lehmans.html
“[Emmanuel] Lehman became a member of the Coffee Exchange as early as 1883 and finally the New York Stock Exchange in 1887. In 1899, it underwrote its first public offering, the preferred and common stock of the International Steam Pump Company. Despite the offering of International Steam, the firm’s real shift from being a commodities house to a house of issue did not begin until 1906. In that year, under Philip Lehman, the firm partnered with Goldman, Sachs & Co., to bring the General Cigar Co. to market, followed closely by Sears, Roebuck and Company. During the following two decades, almost one hundred new issues were underwritten by Lehman, many times in conjunction with Goldman, Sachs. Among these were F.W. Woolworth Company, May Department Stores Company, Gimbel Brothers, Inc., R.H. Macy & Company, The Studebaker Corporation, the B.F. Goodrich Co. and Endicott Johnson Corporation… In the 1930s, Lehman underwrote the initial public offering of the first television manufacturer, DuMont, and helped fund the Radio Corporation of America (RCA). It also helped finance the rapidly growing oil industry, including the companies Halliburton and Kerr-McGee… In the 1950s, Lehman underwrote the IPO of Digital Equipment Corporation. Later, it arranged the acquisition of Digital by Compaq. Robert Lehman died in 1969, and since that time, no member of the Lehman family has led the company. Robert’s death left a void in the company, which, coupled with a difficult economic environment, brought hard times to the firm. In 1973, Pete Peterson, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Bell & Howell Corporation [Sec. of Commerce and later cofounder of Blackstone in 1985
], was brought in to save the firm.” http://www.scripophily.net/hoboken.html
. Peter G. Peterson http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_G._Peterson
Blackstone was a mortgage co-holder on World Trade Center 7 on 9-11.
: “In 1895, Rosenwald became a partner in Sears, Roebuck and Co. when Richard Sears offered Rosenwald’s brother-in-law, Aaron Nusbaum, an interest in the company. Nusbaum recruited Rosenwald… In 1908, Rosenwald was named president when Richard Sears resigned… Of all his philanthropic efforts, Rosenwald was most famous for the more than 5,000 “Rosenwald schools” he established throughout the South for poor, rural black youth, and the 4,000 libraries he added to existing schools.” http://www.searsarchives.com/people/juliusrosenwald.htm
; “By his sixteenth year, Rosenwald was apprenticed by his parents to his uncles in New York City to learn the clothing trades. While in New York he befriended Henry Goldman and Henry Morgenthau, Sr
…” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Rosenwald Henry Goldman
personally financed Max Born and Albert Einstein on visits to Germany between the wars (and famously bought A.E. a sailboat in 1929 http://www.einstein-website.de/z_biography/tuemmler-e.html
Stern – Maurice Stern (and Hannah Bloom), parents of Edgar B. Stern; grandparents of Edgar Jr.(m.Pauline Stewart), Philip (m.Helen) and Audrey (m. Thomas Baer Hess, architect); http://files.usgwarchives.net/la/orleans/bios/s-000036.txt
Maurice Stern (b.1855) came to the U.S. from Bavaria in 1871 (age 16) and entered the employ of Lehman, Newgass & Co., becoming a senior partner in 1886. Mr. Stern held the following positions (from the 1914 historical document linked above which appears to contain an error regarding the name-change of Lehman Newgass to Lehman Stern. The document lists the name-change as ‘Lehman Abraham & Co.’, likely an error in identifying Abraham Stern, Maurice’s brother, who married a sister of Benjamin Newgass):
*Vice-president of Lane Cotton Mills (owned by Lehmans) http://www.bestofneworleans.com/gambit/who-owned-lane-cotton-mill/Content?oid=1254063
Pres. of Sague De Tananio Land Co.
Director of Whitney Central National Bank https://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Whitney-Holding-Corporation-Company-History.html
Director of Whitney Central Trust & Savings Bank
Treas. of Southern State Land & Timber Co.
Treas. of Louisiana Homeseekers Farm & Land Co.
Treas. of New Orleans Dry Dock and Shipbuilding Co.
Treas. of New Orleans Cotton Exchange
Treas. of Jewish Widows and Orphans Home
Trustee of Touro Infirmary
Exec. Committee of the Panama Exposition
Exec. Committee of the Federal quarantine authority
Exec. Committee of Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati
Member, Louisiana State Board of Education
Member, American Jewish Committee – in 1939, Edgar B. Stern was elected to the AJC Executive Committee http://www.ajcarchives.org/AJC_DATA/Files/1939_1940_9_AJCAnnualReport.pdf; During WWII, Edgar served the AJC alongside his brothers-in-law, Lessing (vice-pres.) and William Rosenwald, Irving Lehman and Lewis L. Strauss (Kuhn, Loeb & Co., Atomic Energy Commission, etc.) http://www.ajcarchives.org/AJC_DATA/Files/1941_1942_10_AJCAnnualReport.pdf. Other members of note include Albert D. Lasker [Amer.Cancer Society], Roger W. Straus [R.H.Macy’s, Guggenheim foundation, ASARCO], Frederick M. Warburg [Kuhn, Loeb &Co] and Sidney J. Weinberg [CEO Goldman Sachs].
The Lasker Syndicate: Albert D. Lasker made millions as the executive owner of Lord and Taylor advertizing, promoting cigarettes and cereal. Albert was introduced to (third wife) Mary Woodward by Adm. Lewis L. Strauss (AEC), Wild Bill Donovan (OSS) and Max Epstein (General American Tank Car Co). The Laskers made their mark taking control of the American Cancer Society in 1945, establishing the Lasker Foundation and Awards, and Mary’s lobbying in Washington DC with cohort Florence Mahoney to expand and endow the NIH http://www.smokershistory.com/laskersy.htm
ASARCO, American Smelting and Refining Co., bought by Guggenheims in 1902 with leading operations in Tuscon, AZ. ASARCO mine workers were killed in cross-border raids before WWI prompting military hostilities with Mexico and the eventual dispatch of Gen. John J. Pershing to capture Pancho Villa. Roger Straus (married to Gladys Guggenheim) became a longtime CEO. ASARCO filed for bankruptcy in 2005 and rebounded under reorganization in 2008. Roger W. Straus Jr founded the publisher Farrar, Straus and Giroux which he first operated out of a Navy office. The Straus family patriarch, Oscar Solomon Straus (brother to Isador and Nathan of Macy’s dept. store) was also an ambassador to the Ottomon Turks before Henry Morganthau Sr. Arab independence from the Ottomans was a prerequisite to the future independence of Jews in Palestine. http://www.azcentral.com/business/articles/2008/04/16/20080416biz-asarco0417-ON.html ; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASARCO
“William C. Whitney was also a director of the Guggenheim Exploration Company, the Cuba Company, and several other banks and corporations… The chief members of the Whitney syndicate were also directors and stockholders of the American Tobacco Company.
” http://www.smokershistory.com/Whitney.htm ; http://www.smokershistory.com/ATC.htm
Kuhn Loeb & Co., founded as a post-Civil-war liquidator (pawn) and note issue in Indiana, moved to Cincinnati as a “merchandizer”. Kuhn Loeb became a leading New York investment house under the leadership of Jacob Schiff, noted for financing railroads and heavy industry. In the 1970s, Kuhn Loeb merged with Lehman Bros and ceased to exist. http://kuhnloeb.com/ “At the time, intermarriage among the German-Jewish elite was customary Consequently, the partners of Kuhn, Loeb were closely related by blood and marriage to the partners of J & W Seligman, Speyer & Co., Goldman, Sachs & Co., and Lehman Brothers. A particularly close relationship existed between the partners of Kuhn, Loeb and M. M. Warburg & Co. of Hamburg, Germany, through Paul, Felix and Sigmund Warburg, who were Kuhn, Loeb partners.”
A Loeb-Rosenwald connection existed in the executive leadership of Sears Roebuck with the vice-presidency of Albert H. Loeb (who owned Castle Farms in Michigan, photo, http://news.webshots.com/photo/2377244320043326620iortrQ ) Loeb’s son was one of the pair ‘Leopold and Loeb’ thrill-killers who killed young Bobby Franks in 1924, narrowly averting the kidnapping of Julius Rosenwald’s grandson Armand Deutsche Jr., according to Deutsche http://chicago.urban-history.org/evt/evt02/evt0213.shtml
The Loeb Family
Descendents and relatives of Solomon Loeb (Kuhn, Loeb & Co.)
Carl M. Loeb, founder of American Metal Company and Loeb, Rhoades & Co. Carl’s son, John L. Loeb, was the father of Anne Loeb Bronfman, wife of Edgar Bronfman who inherited the Seagram’s fortune and became a founding funder of the Salk Institute. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhoades_&_Company . Besides a 40% ownership in Cuban Atlantic Sugar by the company, John L. Loeb personally held a certified claim against Cuba for confiscation of property (#33 of the top 50 claims, out of 5,911 claims registered by American owners) http://cuba-l.unm.edu/?nid=70225 Freeport McMoRan,(Freeport Sulphur) based in New Orleans at this writing, had the #3 claim in value for the Moa Bay Mining operation. According to the author, “Castro’s confiscations –provoked partly by the Kennedy administration’s decision to stop purchasing most of the Cuban sugar crop– is at the root of the U.S. trade embargo against Cuba.” [Freeport information on the Doctor Mary’s Monkey page]
Sullivan and Cromwell
“The Story of Panama, the U.S. House Hearings on Panama in 1913,” offers hundreds of pages of documentation proving that William Nelson Cromwell, founder of the firm, and Dulles’ mentor, instigated and promoted the Panamanian Revolution for J.P. Morgan and J. & W. Seligman. Morgan subsequently received $40 million in gold from the U.S. Treasury, the largest check it had ever drawn to that time. $35 million of this sum was clear profit.” http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/world_order/WorldCh07-1.htm
…to be continued