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Polio Forever

Posted in polio past by polioforever on December 22, 2009


                 “The Salk vaccine was a massive radiation experiment…
                              …that paved the way for a New Biology”  
April 1955.
The desperately-awaited Salk IPV, which promised to end the polio epidemics sweeping the country, was announced with great fanfare on April 12, in the midst of Operation Teapot. http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Usa/Tests/Teapot.html Jonas Salk had made it known since 1952 that he believed he had the “right” formula. 1952 was the year with the most number of polio cases on record in the U.S. Only one year before, in January of ’51, the Nevada Proving Ground (NTS) was activated for testing, initiated by Project Ranger which sent radioactive plumes streaming over the northern half of the nation, leaving radioactive snow on the ground in places like Michigan and New York. Also in 1951, the cells of a particularly aggressive cancer, called HeLa, were taken from a dying patient and distributed for poliovirus vaccine research. 
   No one has ever officially told the public that polio in humans was a result of radiation.  An even greater omission suggested by research is that the polio vaccines were conceived or promoted as “dual-purpose” cancer prevention. When the Salk IPV had been administered to roughly half of America’s youth population, the military launched its most ambitious and “dirty” atomic weapons tests, initiating the period of peak atmospheric fallout.  But that is just an aspect of the 1950s and the Cold War. The greater Whole includes present-day vaccines, unprecendented emerging disease and the genetic engineering of plants, animals and people. Polio Forever is an effort to tell the Whole story.
Written and researched by Jennifer Lake
I invite you to visit  https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com  for the continuing conversation. Comments, updates and news are posted there. (Sorry, no ‘comments’ are visible here.)

“..poliovirus doesn’t attach to and damage just any cell. It is a ‘guided missile’ that does one thing: seek out, damage, and destroy the neurons that “activate” you –the ones that activate your brain and muscles. The poliovirus is the perfect human ‘Off switch’…” –Richard Bruno, The Polio Paradox
   Polio is a brain infection, sometimes involving the nerves of the spinal cord and sometimes not. It never went away like they say. Most people who get it have a mild case of flu and then it’s gone –almost no one thinks twice about it or ever guesses that it might be something other than the familiar symptoms of a normal ‘bug’. We were taught to believe that the vaccines invented by Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin got rid of polio and only the poorest countries, deprived of vaccines, are still vulnerable to its crippling effects. The World Health Organization’s taking care of it, right?…that’s what we think, so we’re inclined not to pay attention and just keep giving money to the world medical charities.
But how is it that people who were properly vaccinated as children end up sick with polio as adults? (They call it age-related illness).  How is it that a paralytic disease called Guillain-Barre Syndrome struck down hundreds of Americans in the round of 1976 swine flu vaccines? What’s happening in the world today with Alzheimer’s and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, MS and other neurological illnesses afflicting so many? Is it normal? Is it contagious? Is it pollution? Does it cause cancer? Is it in the vaccines? A frightening surge of perplexing illnesses, including AIDS and Ebola have emerged since the late 1970s. Are these “polio-like” in some way? Is there a parallel in the 1970s and 80s with the emerging illnesses that followed the Spanish Flu in the 1920s and 30s? More questions than answers appear, but unraveling the history of polio has surprising discoveries in store.
The Polio Timeline is a key to this blog and an index of its pages which introduces the various known and related causes of polio: www.polioforever.wordpress.com/polio-timeline/  The timeline is a work-in-progress beginning with the 1789 discovery of uranium coincident with the first recognized polio sufferer, Sir Walter Scott.
The History of Polio
First, we need to know what polio is, the way medical experts describe it, and second we need to know that the official historical record began erasing polio as quickly as possible in the mid-1950s in order to give the appearance of creating a successful vaccine –successful, not in the ordinary sense, but in the triumphant and heroic sense of the Greatest Medical Achievement of All Time!  Did you know that the polio vaccine had such an illustrious past? Antibiotics and X-rays pale by comparison in the mind-numbing mantra of repetition, but the establishment has always had its critics who complained of hype and exaggeration, charging that the government-supported publicity blew the perception of polio out of all proportion to its actual occurrance. In contemporary fashion, we’re induced to believe that Greed drives the motive of unnecessary vaccinations today, turning us all into cynics, yet still people line up and go along with the program of “getting our shots”. We simply haven’t learned anything about the real causes and cures of disease, succumbing to the dilemna of doubt engendered by our lack of knowledge. Even our own experiences are not serving a larger awareness that the workings of biology and ‘pathogens’ could be different from what we’ve been told.
According to microbiologist Bonnie Bassler in her TED Talk, “..You have an amazing interaction with [bacterial] critters… [There are] ten times more bacterial cells than human cells in or on a human being… you have a hundred times more bacterial genes playing a role in you or on you for..life…  I think of you as 99 percent bacterial… These are incredibly important. They keep us alive. They cover us in an invisible body armor that keeps environmental insults out. They digest our food. They make vitamins. They actually educate your immune system on how to keep bad microbes out.” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TVfmUfr8VPA
It’s not a simple process to tell the story of polio. And yet it’s a profoundly simple story, but there is a mountain of lies in the way. Climbing over that mountain will put you at risk of having your life changed –forever. You will have to believe me when I say it will change for the better. Not climbing it will not preserve the life you have now because at the heart of Polio’s Story are the most fundamental issues of Life and the future of your experience has been pre-determined unless you take an active role in moderating the outcome. The War on Germs is a War on You. Take it personally.
Paralytic polio was a rare disease before the Industrial Age but the palsies were not uncommon and known to be caused by toxic medicines containing mercury, arsenic and other assorted ingredients, referred to as “mercurial diseases”. Examples of toxic paralysis are all around us in nature. Snakes, spiders and species of fish in particular emit potent neurotoxins as a means of food gathering and survival defense. Our ancestors coined the word “virus” in its original meaning of  “poison”, a concept that still resonates with us now although a false belief persists that viruses are living things, encouraged by the inaccurate use of words like “live” and “killed”. Viruses are biochemical structures with crystalline shapes, folded fragments of DNA with coded genetic information very similar to enzymes. They’re considered key components of evolutionary change, carried in the cells of living organisms which transmit viral ‘programs’ into the greater environment, internally and externally. Viral infections are usually specific to the type of tissue infected because they are biochemically ‘directed’ and require a precise set of conditions to occur, including ‘receptors’ on the surface of susceptible cells. Viral infections can arise when living cells die and decompose, their viral components released in a phenomenon called a “cytopathic effect”. This is why antibiotics don’t work on viral infections, and can actually increase the presence of virus. Poisoning produces just such a torrent of cell death and viral release. In acute cases, paralysis results. It can be local or general, but if the living subject survives and has a healthy immune system, it will create a special virus and a complementary antibody that work together mitigating  further effects from the poison. In this way, our bodies  become conditioned to the rising presence of toxic chemicals, but 200 years ago, when the first known cases of polio were recorded, the entire population was vulnerable and “naive”, and children were the most vulnerable of all.
Large inputs of new chemicals introduced in the 1860s  began affecting small pockets of  people who shared geographic proximity, industrial labors, or contamination sources. The world’s first large outbreak of over one thousand victims happened in Sweden in 1887-88 –after that, regular outbreaks began occurring in scattered places of the industrialized nations. The United States experienced large outbreaks after 1900 in its big northern cities. People were poor, undernourished and crowded together, but none of that explained the emergence of unknown and rare illnessess and the effect served to heighten the incidental relationship between contagion and “disease agents”.  Immigrants were blamed and bad “city milk” was blamed as carriers of unseen entities from unsanitary places. Victorian-era phobias that ran counter to the New Enlightenment of scientism fueled the mounting crisis in the eyes of urban social designers who began waging political battle in the new war on germs. Many of them didn’t know at the time that sanitation and more abundantly nutritious food had already reduced the fearsome plagues of the past, but everywhere new schools of thought and behavior cropped up to support the trends in socialization. Like medieval guilds, medical researchers organized and sought patronage from ideological captains of industry who were eager to exploit new business opportunities. With hindsight, it’s easy to see how the Rothschilds and Rockefellers institutionalized their practice of eugenics. It’s much harder to encompass the scope in our present time and realize that millions of good people have been miseducated into helping them execute their plans. But planned it is. Hand over hand in the great military-industrial complex that we were warned to watch, ironically by the same man under whose tenure the polio vaccine came to fruition, the wheel has come full circle.
The secret of polio is hiding in plain sight if one but looks. In 2000, the US Congress held hearings for the testimony of doctors on the causes of Gulf War Syndrome. It must have been a near repeat of an event 50 years earlier when Drs. Biskind and Scobey stood in front of the Senators and told them what was crippling American kids –nerve poisons! Speaking on behalf of the GWS researchers, Dr. Howard Urnovitz happened to relate his graduate experience in the lab inducing polio in animals with chemicals or radiation.  Radiation! Why has no one else told us that radiation causes polio? The obvious answer is that we might dig into the record and find out that almost everything we learned about the disease is a lie and we totter now on the brink of losing the last domain which we thought was truly our own –our genes and chromosomes. If the establishment choice of  ‘treatment’ is an indication of how we are being targeted for control, Dr Urnovitz’s words are right on the money. “It’s not the germs –it’s the genome.”
Nuclear energy was theoretically proposed not later than 1875 by an Englishman named Samuel Tolver Preston. Two decades after that, the first applied nuclear technology, X-ray, was literally in hand, and in just over one decade more, in 1908, its use as a weapon was elucidated for the first time as science fiction by the writer H.G. Wells, who further elaborated on the potential of nuclear bombs in a 1914 story called The World Set Free. Perhaps, as an instrument of his time and associates, Wells was meant to seed the modern imaginations of social thinkers with the idea that Peace was achievable by warfare in the misguided perpetuation of apocalyptic promises. However dimly the First World War is presented to schoolchildren today, it was nevertheless the Great War — the War to End All Wars–  and it’s preparation and execution permanently changed the geo-political landscape for ill.  Wells’s indelible mark on scientific thought later served to fire the mind of a young Hungarian, Leo Szilard, during the interwar years, who left us his testimony that he dreamed of being the inventor of the first nuclear bomb, but before Szilard’s time, within this window of three decades between Preston’s energy equation (1875) and the beginning of WWI (1914) , the discovery and manipulation of viruses entered the arsenal of the human armory.
Too small for observation, viruses were procured by the technique of creating a ‘filtrate’ from diseased tissue and inoculating it into a healthy specimen in order to reproduce the original disease; accomplished successfully in 1892 by the Ukrainian, Dmitri Ivanovsky, who passed the Tobacco Mosaic Virus from sick plants to healthy ones. Within a few years, ‘isolates’ were made of animal diseases and the practice of medical experimentation, as we think of it, was off and running. Medical X-rays were announced by their discoverer, Wilhelm Roentgen, in December of 1895 and immediately taken up by adventuring science pioneers whose investigations were as unlimited as their curiosity. Doctors, electrical engineers, and anyone who could build or access X-ray machines were offering ‘treatments’ to the public. One Chicago electrician is on record for giving 1,400 treatments in 1896 and it was not unusual for an ‘X-ray’ to last 30 minutes or an hour. Warnings were almost completely disregarded. Deaths, disfigurements, and diseases began quickly adding up, year after year. In 1903, according to the fluoride expert Dr. Albert Schatz, another radioactive hazard — radon– was added to public drinking water. The discovery of radium [1898] prompted its hasty uptake as a medicament, spurring the invention of radioactive ‘contrast media’ which lit up the soft internal tissues on the X-ray plates. The chemical industry found a use for X-rays analyzing the unique microscopic ‘signature’ diffraction patterns marked on the plates by individual substances, called crystallography. Chemicals and bacteria, rabbits and dogs, people with problems, and exploitive and curious practitioners all came under the influence of X-rays.
The field of genetics virtually created itself with the benefit of X-ray technology as reseachers observed profound and permanent changes in the hereditary mutability of exposed organisms. Hermann J. Muller’s fruitfly studies, begun after WWI, are legendary reminders of what a powerful technology can do. Through the use of X-ray experiments, and subsequent studies on fallout, we can finally see the connection to polio and understand how hundreds of disease conditions were brought into unnatural being.
These are quotes from research documents dating from the 1950s and 60s, most of them prepared under military auspices. The chief military concern was human performance under conditions of the Nuclear Battlefield:
“Radiation-Induced changes in the nervous system’s..central role in behavior makes it the presumed primary mediator of radiation-induced performance deficits.
…One hypothesis is that a sufficiently large radiation dose causes permanent brain lesions, demyelination, and necrosis, which in turn produce chronic behavioral deficits. In addition, short-lived behavioral phenomena may be mediated by transient vascular changes that induce edema or ischemia in the CNS [Central Nervous System]. A second hypothesis is that performance changes are mediated by significant alterations in brain function due to neurochemistry and neurophysiology. As is often the case, there is some truth in both hypotheses”
“A review of many standard radiobiology textbooks reveals the common belief that the adult nervous system is relatively resistant to damage from ionizing radiation exposure…however, this view was eroded when it was later shown that the latency period for..radiation damage..is simply longer than it is in other organ systems.”
“In the brain…different topographical regions may have varying susceptibility to ionizing radiation.
…gamma nerve fibers are more sensitive…reflexes are more radioresistant than motor coordination..indicating that radiation mainly affects the functions of the subcortico-brainstem formations of the brain.”
“The phenomena of latent Central Nervous System radiation damage (with doses above the threshold) has been well documented.
…speculation on the likely pathogenesis of late radiation lesions reveals (a) radiation may act primarily on the vascular system…and (b) radiation may have a primary effect on cells of the neural parenchyma [‘parenchyma’ means “primary organ tissue”]
…evidence in support of a vascular hypothesis was obtained when human brains that had been exposed to X-rays were examined…
…delayed damage of capillary..cells may occur leading to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. This would result in vasogenic edema..and eventually neuronal and myelin degeneration.
…hypertension accelerates the appearance of vascular lesions in the brain after irradiation.”
“The exposure of forty-five rabbits’ heads..produced a disturbance of the blood-brain barrier that returned to normal only after six days. The transient nature of the vascular phenomena may partially explain some of the behavioral deficits observed after exposure to..ionizing radiation.”
“The radiosensitivity of certain types of [brain] glial cells (beta astrocyte) is well recognized…
Clinical evidence also suggests that radiogenic demyelination may occur…transient radiation myelopathy could be the result of temporary demyelination of sensory neurons….vascular and glial changes may be important in the development of late radiation damage to the CNS”.
“In addition to axonal demyelination, other direct neuronal damage may occur in the irradiated adult animal….mitotic neurons of the prenatal or neonatal CNS are known to be extremely sensitive to radiation”.
“It may be that certain populations of proliferating neurons in the adult can be damaged or destroyed by relatively low doses of radiation…changes in brain metabolism were reported after very low doses of ionizing radiation..measuring local cerebral glucose utilization.
…Lower rates of glucose use were found..after irradiation….hippocampal spike discharges..developed soon after irradiation when no other clinical signs of neurological damage or radiation sickness were present.
…the hippocampus is important in critical functions like learning, memory, and motor performance….these data suggest that hippocampal electro-physiology may be the most sensitive measure of functional brain changes after irradiation.”
“It has been known for some time that paralysis of the hind limbs of animals can result from localized irradiation of the spinal cord. Rabbits developed this paralysis at 4 to 33 weeks after exposure of the upper thoracic region [e.g., a chest x-ray]…
As in other modal systems, the time interval between irradiation and..neurological symptoms decreases as dose increases. For example, 50 Gy [or 50 Gray, which is 5,000 Rad] of X-rays to the monkey midthoracic spinal cord produced immediate paraplegia, whereas 40 Gy was effective only after a latent period of about 5.5 months.”
“In humans, the lethal dose for 50% of cases after 30 days (LD 50/30) is 4.5 Gy [or 450 Rad; restated, exposure to 450 Rad of X-ray will kill half of the people exposed to it after a latency period of 30 days], whereas in the monkeys the LD 50/30 is 6.0 Gy [or 600 Rad].”
—common lab animals like rabbits, rats and mice had far greater radioresistance than humans and monkeys.
Source documents: http://www.afrri.usuhs.mil/outreach/pdf/tmm/chapter7/chapter7.pdf . Some the of materials collated for this publication are cited in the National Security Archives, a nongovernmental project of George Washington University http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/ , listed at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/radiation/dir/mstreet/research/pubs/titles.txt
Searching the GWUNSA database: citations are listed in documents and can be searched for with key words, such as these entries:
“Gilman, P.K., and Baetjer, F.H..
Some effects of roentgen rays on development of embryos. 1904.
Am. J. Physiol 10: 222-224.##”
“Muller, H.J..
Artificial transmutation of the gene.  1927.  Science
“Stern, S..
Report of thirtyone cases of therapeutic abortion induced by
roentgen-ray therapy.  1928.  American Journal
Roentgenology,Radium Therapy 19: 133-140.##”
[see the case of Buck v. Bell in this context  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buck_v._Bell]
“Sandstrom, O..
Subsequent degenerations after fractional protracted roentgen
irradiation.  1943.  Acta Radiologica 24: 289-294..##”
“Gratzek, F.R., Holmstrom, E.G., and Rigler, L.G..
Postirradiation bone changes.  1945.  Am. J. Roentgen.Radium
Ther. 53;  pp.  62-76.##
“Bassett, S.H. et al.
The excretion of hexavalent uranium following
intravenous administration. II. Studies on human subjects..
Rochester, NY:Univ. of Rochester Atomic Energy Project, 1948.
UR-37: 1-54.##”
“Ridenour, L.N..
How effective are radioactive poisons in warfare?.  1950. Bull
At Sci 6: 199-202.##”
“Miller, R.W.  University of Rochester.
Some Potential Hazards of the Widespread Use of Roentgen Rays
in Pediatrics.  University of Rochester.  Atomic EnergyProject,
1952.  UR-191 report published March 13, 1952″
“Nurnberger, C.E.,  and Lipscomb, A..
Transmission of Radioiodine (I-131) to Infants through
Human Maternal Milk..  1952.  J. Am. Med. Assoc. 150:1398-1400..##”
“Looney, W.B..
Late effects (twenty-five to forty years) of the early medical
and industrial use of radioactive materials.  1955.  The Journal
of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 37-A: 1169-1187..##”
“Muller, H.J..
What will radioactivity do to our children? [Interview withDr.
H.J. Muller].  May 13, 1955.  U.S. News & World
“Hammer-Jacobsen, E.  .
Therapeutic abortion on account of xray examination
duringpregnancy..  1959, 1963.  Danish Medical Bulletin 6;
pp.113-122, 1959.  (Nuclear Science Abstract 17, 38779, 1963)..##”
How to design and build abnormal brains using radiation during
development. In Disorders of the Developing NervousSystem,
Fields, W.S. and Desmond, M.M., eds..  Springfield, Ill:Thomas,
1961.  Also available as US Atomic Energy Comm TID6159:1-28, Jun
60;   pp. 60-97.##”
“Hanford, J.M., Quimby, E.H., and Frantz, V.K.. Cancer arising
many years after irradiation of benign lesions in the neck.  1962.
JAMA 181;  pp. 404-410.##”
“Lampert, P.W., and Davis, R.L..
Delayed effects of radiation on the human central
nervous system.  1964.  Neurology 14;  pp.  912-917..##”
“Scholte, P.J. and Sobels, F.H..
Sex ratio shifts among progeny from patients having
received therapeutic x-radiation..  1964.  American Journal Human
Genetics16: 26-37, 1964..##”
“Diamond, E.L., Schmerler, H., and Lilienfeld, A.M.. The
relationship of intrauterine radiation to subsequent mortality
and development of leukemia in children. A prospective study.
1973.  Am J Epidemiol 97(5):  pp. 283-313.##”
An official Hanford plutonium plant document describes myelitis:   http://www.doh.wa.gov/hanford/publications/health/mon9.htm  “Myelitis, or inflammation of the spinal cord, can occur within 2 to 4 months after a patient being treated with radiation is exposed to thousands of rad….Myelitis is sometimes delayed, not occurring until 4 months to 3 years after radiation exposure. This delayed effect is due to scarring of the spinal cord and is not a direct effect on spinal cord nerve cells. When delayed, a person may experience more severe problems such as paralysis and lack of bladder control.” [see the Health Physics page]
There are thousands upon thousands of declassified and publicly produced medical citations in the GWU archives indicating all manner of conceivable experiments with radiation and radioactive chemicals on human beings. Paralysis, cancer, birth defects, psychological disorders — this is just a taste. X-ray abuse was an essential component in paving the way for nuclear proliferation and high-energy weapons. Chemical giant Monsanto, wartime operator of the Oak Ridge nuclear facility along with Union Carbide, began pumping out reactor-made radioisotopes for medical ‘study’ in 1946 under the direction of the Atomic Energy Commission and its chief, David Lilienthal http://citizen2009.wordpress.com/monsanto/. The imperative of covering up the radiation cause of polio, and “racing for a vaccine” after 1945, is obvious in retrospect. The military-medical establishment put its top guns on the task. The anomalous propaganda and distortion of polio takes on a meaningful light with the knowledge that Operation Polio was integral to maintaining and advancing nuclear weapons. The Salk vaccine was a massive radiation experiment. See the Atomic Weapons page for the timing of this event https://polioforever.wordpress.com/atomic-weapons/
        Operation Crossroads, 1946
Jonas Salk was recruited to the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board in 1942, commissioned to join his mentor, Thomas Francis Jr.,  on the task of making an influenza vaccine for the Army. Breakthroughs in the study of flu, and the first known recovery of a human flu virus, had occurred ten years earlier (1931-1933) at the British National Institute for Medical Research, an establishment that was organized at the end of WWI in part because of the Great Spanish Flu pandemic. Polio and influenza have always shared a close relationship, more than just the interest and effort of the same scientists. They are nearly identical viruses –influenza virus being a double-sized version– sharing the same fundamental qualities with little difference in the symptoms of infection. We should be asking our doctors if influenza is also a disease of poisoning by chemicals and radiation. The evidence demonstrates that it is.
Salk, Albert Sabin, John Enders, Thomas Rivers, and the members of the Polio Hall of Fame in the mid-20th century were all commissioned officers in the AFEB, although the historical spin suggests that the AFEB was comprised of ‘civilians’, the record proves that the American medical system was an extension of the military, and for all the layers of appearances over the decades, nothing has changed. In 2009 H1N1 influenza-A was recovered at the San Diego Naval Health Research Center weeks before it supposedly erupted in Mexico. The US military maintains a worldwide infrastructure called GEIS to manage our current outbreaks, and a policy among practitioners called “ONE medicine” which is streamlining the pharmaceuticals to treat humans and animals alike http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2009/09/12/global-emerging-infections-system/ . One hundred years of mixing our DNA through blood products and culturing viruses to cross-over to other species, imposed by increasingly toxic “selective pressure” on our mutable genomes, has brought a new disease reality to bear on the human ‘herd’.
Jonas Salk was rewarded for his services in 1959, when a biomedical institute was arranged for him in the north San Diego community of La Jolla (‘the jewel’). His staff was recruited from within the government’s most prized biological reseach facilities. Geneticists, nuclear physicists and mathematicians held the posts of Fellows. Government “ringers” and international banker-industrialists sat on its Board of Directors. The Salk Institute was one of the gounding legs in a research complex that encompassed the Scripps Institute and the newly created University of California at San Diego, managed from above by its San Francisco regents who oversaw the operations of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, home of the Bomb. One of the most prominent physicists from Los Alamos and founder of General Atomics, Frederic de Hoffman, whose equations were the ‘correct’ ones for making the H-bomb, became a long-standing director of the Salk Institute and a personal mentor to its namesake until his death from AIDS in 1989. Salk, the institute, and the vision that he held for humanity was summed up in his philosophy of ‘metabiology’, a term that perhaps he coined in the belief that organic life should not be limited by the natural workings of chemistry, but in fact,  ought to be manipulated to bring forth unknown properties and qualities, advancing the cause of human intervention in mastering his world and universe. The idea is a perfect complement in  biological terms to the creation of nuclear energy.
The race for an anti-radiation vaccine which would ultimately protect against polio, is best demonstrated by the work and timing of Dr. William McDowell Hammon; an AFEB officer, former medical dean at UCBerkeley, and chief of the epidemiology department at the University of Pittsburgh, from where he organized his infamous “double-blind” experiment using gamma globulin in 1951. Nuclear testing had just come “home” from the South Pacific. The Nevada Proving Ground was activated for its first atomic detonations in January, and radioactive snow had fallen across the northern path of fallout. The sense among officials was desperate. The March of Dimes had rejected gamma globulin as a prophylactic before the opening of Nevada, but the situation was about to turn grave and no useful radioprotectants had been devised. Polio incidence was on the fast-track to tripling from its pre-1950 occurrance. Hammon’s plans were quickly approved and the first test injections were arranged for September in Provo, Utah.
“Five weeks of protection” was what Hammon told the press. In reality, gamma globulin had shown that it was able to confer passive immunity protection for three months or more. The unique setting of Provo placed it directly in the range of fallout from Nevada and the much closer Dugway Proving Ground, where active radiological and chemical warfare experiments were going on. Choosing the location for other reasons, in retrospect, is a breach of common sense. Provo had no medical hospital and Hammon’s team was forced to daily drive the round-trip to Salt Lake City to use the lab facilities there. Most of all, one needs to make sense of the timing for the ‘summer’ disease that was being tested from September to December. The Nevada Test Site series called Operation Buster-Jangle was scheduled to begin on October 19, six weeks and a day from the beginning of the gamma globulin (GG) trial. Jangle fired its last shot on November 29 and two days later Hammon’s GG team packed up and left. The public, avidly following the polio news in the papers, had been told beforehand that GG would not be a publicly available vaccine no matter the outcomes of Hammon’s experiment. It was just too expensive. The papers called it “practice”. Hammon called the experience in Provo “inconclusive”. The authorites passed it along as “statistically insignificant”. One look at the fallout maps for Buster-Jangle and it can be seen that the mass of radiation clouds avoided Provo with the exception of the first and very last couple of shots. By then, there was no way to continue the experiment and reconcile the effectiveness of the treatment. And then, there are darker possibilities concerning Provo. Some number among the 5,768 children who were injected resided at the State Territorial Asylum. What became of them? Were they unwittingly part of an ongoing experiment? Did someone profit from their polio antibody blood serum?
Dr. Ralph Scobey was concurrently submitting documents to Congress in 1951, proving empirically that more than a century’s worth of medical accounts had recorded commonly used metal compounds and pesticides as causing the paralysis and pathology of polio. He listed and named them, concluding:
“The foregoing reports indicate that poisons can cause poliomyelitis. It would appear that not any one poison in particular would be responsible for all cases of poliomyelitis but the effect of any one of several could produce the same ultimate result. When a disease is known to be caused by a poison, it is obvious that a search for a germ or virus in relation to it would not be made. Conversely, if a so-called virus is believed to be associated with the disease, then the possibility of poisoning as the cause of the disease would not be considered. It will be shown, moreover, that some so-called virus diseases and virus inclusions can be caused by poisons.”…..
“There are two abnormal findings in cases of poliomyelitis that point strongly to poisoning as the cause of this disease. One consists in the appearance of increased amounts of porphyrin in the urine; the other is the presence of increased amounts of guanidine in the blood. It is a well-known fact that porphyria can follow poisoning by a number of chemicals. Guanidine has been found in increased amounts in the blood in arsenic, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride poisonings.”
“The fact that ascorbic acid has been effective in the treatment of poliomyelitis appears justly to imply that this disease has a poison cause. Ascorbic acid has been used as a reducing agent in the treatment of poisoning resulting from a number of toxic agents, including coal tar antipyretics, nitro compounds, aniline, cyanide, benzene, lead, arsenic, etc.Paralleling these modern scientific investigations is the observation over a century ago that lime juice and lemon juice were protective against the poisoning by fish which sometimes resulted in paralysis.” http://www.whale.to/a/scobey2.html
Researcher Janine Roberts adds to Dr. Scobey’s testimony, writing that in 1954 he “posited that the body itself might activate or produce these viruses, perhaps when under threat [the cytopathic effect] or to clean up cellular damage. While ‘the fundamental cause of human poliomyelitis appears to be a poison or toxin’ Scobey said,’the virus is synthesized or activated within the human body as a result of the poisoning’…It is also widely known that toxin-damaged tissues attract viruses” . Ms. Roberts relates that the scientists “discovered that it was possible for many different viruses to be present in these damaged nerve cells”. http://www.sparks-of-light.org/polio-cause.html

Congress paid attention. In 1954, when the Salk IPV went into wide national and multi-country testing, DDT and other polio-causing substances came under domestic restrictions. The “DDT Is Good For Me” campaign was over. No testing was scheduled for the Nevada Test Site in ’54 while the new Salk vaccine was under trial. Polio was going to go away and the vaccine was going to be a great success. Pesticides could now also cover up the radiation cause of polio.