Poliomyelitis –inflammation of the ‘gray matter’ of the central nervous system, or as proved by David Bodian, brain infection –encephalitis. The term derives from Greek. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=gray
The modern pathology of poliomyelitis involves the ‘anterior horn cells’of the spinal cord, precisely the nature of West Nile Virus infection, which caused the largest outbreak of encephalitis in US history http://citizen2009.wordpress.com/west-nile-virus/. The illness of polio has never been adequately proven to be contagious or caused by a virus, and many other viruses are implicated in polio-like causation, nevertheless polio has a detailed published history giving it an ancient footprint as one of the most dread and studied of all viral diseases. It is a wholly modern phenomena brought on by industrial methods of medicine and the very unfortunate consequences of toxic pollution. Separate treatment of the ‘basket’ of illnesses called polio and the poliovirus is needed. Ancient societies had their own toxicity problems –lead vessels and pipe, mineral dyes and cosmetics, etc– and appear to have been acutely aware of the dangers to health and the noncontagious nature of the related ailments. The so-called “mercurial” diseases of the 19th century were largely palsies brought on by the toxic ingredients in medicaments. In the 20th century, toxic ingredients included radioactive substances in products like ‘Radithor’. Ushering in the 20th century was the new technology of X-rays –a severely abused, unaccounted for and misunderstood application of a burgeoning technological society, awestruck by the wonders and appeal of ‘scientism’.
This Egyptian stele was described as “evidence” of ancient polio according to Ove Hamburger in 1911.
It is these cells that are affected in the so-called “Anterior Horn Diseases”, namely Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Spinal muscular atrophy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Poliomyelitis, West Nile Virus, and Progressive muscular atrophy. These motorneurons are also affected in Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy (Kennedy disease).
Poliovirus is in the family of intestinal enteroviruses called Picornaviridae (includes polio, coxsackie, and echo viruses), which may interchangeably be involved in motor-neuron diseases. http://www.microbiologybytes.com/virology/Picornaviruses.html . It’s estimated that enteroviruses account for approx. 15 million cases of infection in the U.S. each year. Viruses were not able to be observed until the advent of electron micropscopes between 1932-1938 and relied on high quality ultrafine porcelain filters to ‘catch’ bacterial organisms and allow the viral particulates to pass through. This practice is the highly controversial origin of “laboratory virus”.
Polioviruses fall into three ‘serotypes’ (I, II, and III), with a fourth on the way, representing over two hundred documented variations. Scripps Institute provides a taxonomy map for research strains : http://viperdb.scripps.edu/gallery_maker.php?imagesPerRow=4&scaling=0.3&captions=on&genus=on&chart_type=CAP&family Further mutations are being discovered as ‘vaccine’ strains are now incorporated into the expanding viral genome of poliovirus, as this next link demonstrates from a discovery of two new polioviruses from sewage in 1997, http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/63/8/3199
Simon Flexner produced the first laboratory poliovirus called the MV strain, for “mixed virus” strain, the product of injecting human-derived filtrate into the brains of monkeys. The MV strain is highly infectious in nervous tissue, having become ‘selective’ as a neurotrope from multiple passaging (called ‘attenuation’). Vaccine workers sought to cultivate ‘wild-type’ strains of less virulence and as the ‘serotyping’ of the late 1940s progressed, so did the virus cultivation methods that produced 3 new polioviruses, one of each type, for use in the tri-valent polio vaccines; those three strains are named Mahoney (typeI), Lansing (typeII), and Leon (typeIII). Albert Sabin and Hilary Koprowski produced their own variant strains in the Oral “live-attenuated” vaccines (OPV) which continues to be a subject of debate :
“… it has recently become clear that, in populations with low vaccine coverage and poor surveillance, vaccine-derived strains can ‘silently’circulate for long periods of time, leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks. Sabin-derived type 2 strains circulated in Egyptduring 1982 to 1993 and were responsible for at least 32 poliomyelitis cases (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2001). More recently, two unrelated outbreaks of type 1 poliomyelitis in the island of Hispaniola (Kew et al., 2002) and in the Philippines(Anon., 2001) and an outbreak of type 2 poliomyelitis in Madagascar(F. Delpeyroux, personal communication) have been linked tocirculating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) strains.”
But, has the polio virus ever really been isolated? “In early experiments, all kinds of biological materials spinal cord, brain, fecal matter, even flies were ground up and injected into monkeys to induce paralysis…While Flexner and Lewis may have been incorrect in assuming they had transmitted a purified form of “filterable virus” into their monkeys, they certainly transferred a disease-causing agent or agents from animal to animal...Flexner, Lewis, Dalldorf, Landsteiner, Popper, Dulbecco, Sabin, Salk, and many others worked with unknown agents…For example, in 1948..Dalldorf and Sickles described an “unidentified, filterable agent” that they had “isolated” from the feces of paralyzed children… In 1954, Dulbecco and his colleague Margaret Vogt published a classic research paper that is credited with having set the standard for purifying poliovirus for decades.. Dulbecco and Vogt explained where the “virus” they grew came from: “The virus was supplied as a 20 per cent suspension of spinal cord of rhesus monkey in distilled water…That passage clearly demonstrates that Dulbecco and Vogt did not isolate pure poliovirus in any of the experiments described in this 1954 report.” http://harpub.co.cc/misc/OstromParalyticpolio.htm
Will The Poliovirus Eradication Program Rid the World of Childhood Paralysis? “If we further examine other WHO statistics on poliovirus-associated AFP and those in which the virus is not detected, a striking fact becomes clear: Most acute flaccid paralysis diagnosed around the world today is NOT associated with poliovirus.” http://harpub.co.cc/misc/OstromParalyticpolio.htm
“In 1981, [David] Baltimore and Vincent Racaniello, a post-doctoral fellow in his laboratory, used recombinant DNA technology to generate a plasmid encoding the genome of poliovirus, an animal RNA virus. The plasmid DNA was introduced into cultured mammalian cells and infectious poliovirus was produced.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Baltimore
Dr. Joseph Melnick (Polio Hall of Fame) provides a very standard review of orthodox polio history and pathology: http://cmr.asm.org/cgi/reprint/9/3/293
And here is the encyclopedia: http://www.answers.com/topic/poliomyelitis
Current researchers Jim West and Janine Roberts have gathered the evidence on PESTICIDES which is well represented here http://www.whale.to./v/polio2.html
Jim West includes this note in the graph margin linked below, quoting: “We stand between Scylla and Charybdis. In the presence of an epidemic we are likely to call everything that bears the slightest resemblance to poliomyelitis a proved or almost proved case; and in the absence of an epidemic we are almost certain to fail to recognize cases which are perfectly definite examples of the disease.” (Dr. Janeway, replying to Haven Emerson. From “The Recent Epidemic of Infantile Paralysis”, which Emerson read before a meeting of the The Johns Hopkins Medical Society, November 6, 1916) Today we know that no symptom (silent polio), the common cold, flu, fever, gastro-enteritis, meningitis, encephalitis all can be regarded as different stages of poliomyelitis, which at any stage can be regarded as abortive, if it does not continue to the more acute stage– Jim West http://www.nccn.net/~wwithin/mass1908_2articles.htm#Map
POST-POLIO, conforming to the orthodox dogma http://www.answers.com/topic/post-polio-syndrome [excert]:
“In order to understand post-polio syndrome, it’s important to understand polio infection in general. Although people of any age can become infected with poliovirus, it tends to infect young children in particular. About 1% of all people who become infected with poliovirus will actually become ill. Initial symptoms include fever, nausea, and vomiting, followed by several symptom-free days. Some individuals then recover completely. Others go on to develop new symptoms, including severe head, back, and neck pain. These symptoms signal that the virus is invading the nervous system, causing inflammation, injury, and destruction of motor nerves (the nerves that are necessary for muscle movement). As motor nerves are destroyed, the muscles cannot receive messages from the brain. Without input from the brain, muscle tone becomes weak and floppy, and paralysis sets in. Over time, the muscle becomes atrophic (shrunken in size). Paralysis is usually asymetric; that is, it affects only one side of the body. The paralyzed limbs retain their ability to feel. When the muscles of respiration are affected, the patient may need to be put on a mechanical ventilator.”
“It only takes a few days for the weakness and/or paralysis to progress to its maximum level of severity. Recovery continues for about six months, during which time the remaining unaffected motor nerves begin sprouting new branches to the muscles, in an attempt to compensate for the nerves that were completely destroyed. During this phase, the patient will regain some degree of functioning. After six months have passed, whatever disability remains will usually be permanent.”
“Post-polio syndrome occurs some decades after the original infection with polio. Initially, the subtly gradual progressive muscle weakness is barely noticed by the patient, but over time the decrement becomes increasingly obvious. In general, the more severe the original polio infection, the more severe the disability from post-polio syndrome.”…
“ There is no cure for post-polio syndrome. Efforts are primarily directed at retaining mobility and improving patient comfort. Anti-inflammatory medications can help relieve muscle and joint pain by decreasing inflammation. Braces, wheelchairs, or motorized scooters may help very compromised patients retain some independence and mobility. Respiratory and sleep problems may interact with each other to create considerable distress. They may be relieved by the use of supplemental oxygen and/or breathing devices to help keep the airway open while sleeping.” [end excerpt]
Does Post-Polio Syndrome sound like “aging” to you?
Infectious poliovirus is a basic tool of current gene therapy. The crystalline ‘sphere’ of a poliovirus can be hollowed out and reinserted with new genetic material in a protocol called virotherapy that has multiple applications from dissolving tumors to incorporating a ‘correction’ program through genetic transfer.
Poliovirus treats brain tumors: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/05/010522073358.htm
The photo caption above reads, “Genetics has become a branch of information technology. It is prime information; it is digital information”, with a picture of scientist Richard Dawkins http://www.answers.com/topic/richard-dawkins-british-ethologist
“Gene therapy” is associated with causing cancer, discovered by Salk Institute researchers, http://www.salk.edu/insidesalk/pdf/InsideSalk_200607.pdf “Salk Institute researchers, led by Inder Verma…discovered that a healthy copy, which replaces the defective gene, can itself promote cancer development. Their findings appeared in the April 27  issue of ‘Nature’….’We were surprised by the strength of the association between IL2RG gene therapy and…lymphoma…in the manner it is currently being done puts patients at increased risk for developing cancer”… [see page Polio Vaccine for more info]
POLIO, in culture and history