SV40 – polyoma virus description
Citations and researchers:
Ludwik Gross, discoverer of polyoma virus
Henry Seymour Kaplan, medical use particle accelerator at Stanford, 1955
Maxine Singer, NIH division chief, Weizmann Institute SV40 work
Paul Berg, first recombinant DNA with SV40
Is SV40 contagious or cancer-causing?
Introduction to “Dr. Mary’sMonkey” by Edward Haslam
SV40 contaminated polio (and other) vaccines
SV40 was called “vacuolating virus” before it had a name, part of a general family of viruses called Papovavirus. “Pa-po-va” was created from three words: papilloma, polyoma, and vacuolating, describing a small group of double-stranded DNA viruses. Use of the term Papova is currently defunct in favor of the two subfamilies, papilloma and polyoma. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuole#Vacuolation
“The biology of papovavirus has been shown to be truly fascinating” http://virus.stanford.edu/papova/papovavirus.html
“Polyomaviruses infect a wide variety of vertebrates (12 members now known). Polyomavirus was isolated by Gross in 1953 while he was studying leukaemia in mice and named because it caused solid tumours at multiple sites. The second member of the family, Simian Vacuolating Virus 40 (SV40) was isolated by Sweet and Hilleman in 1960 in primary monkey kidney cells cultures being used to grow Sabin OPV (!). Two human Polyomaviruses were isolated in 1971: BK Virus (BKV)
– from an immunosuppressed kidney transplant patient; JC Virus (JCV)
– from a case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). ” http://www.mcb.uct.ac.za/cann/335/Papovaviruses.html
>>> 3 more human polyomaviruses have been found since 2007 in immunodeficient patients.
“Leukemia can also be produced, in man and mouse, by X-rays. To explore the relationship between virus-induced and the x-ray-induced leukemia, Gross exposed a group of the C3H mice to total body irradiation, 150 roentgens once a week for four to six weeks. Seven to nine months later about half developed leukemia, and cell-free filtrates of the organs were prepared and injected into newborn animals. Among these animals, 11 percent developed leukemia within a year… It is tempting to speculate that the x-rays triggered the production of a latent virus, or..that x-ray provoked the release from the cell of a bit of genetic material that then began to act as a virus.” [page 29] “Among the investigators who were intrigued by Dr. Gross’ findings and their implications was Dr. Sarah Stewart. She started her work by a direct attempt to repeat his studies… In order to find a way to prepare a more concentrated form of the virus, Dr. Stewart enlisted the help of Dr. Bernice Eddy, also of the National Institutes of Health, who had an elaborate tissue culture laboratory (where much polio virus work had been done). Drs. Stewart and Eddy discovered that by growing the virus in mouse embryo cells in the test tube, virus yield could be greatly increased… filtrates..produved tumors in 85 to 100 percent of the animals… some 26 different types [of tumors] in all. It seemed improbable that one virus could be producing all of these growths… No leukemias were produced, however, and it has since been decided that polyoma virus, as it was aptly dubbed by Stewart and Eddy, is a completely separate agent from the Gross leukemia virus they originally set out to explore… In the rabbit, some tumors also occurred, but these were non-malignant subcutaneous nodules that regressed spontaneously within a few months.
“The polyoma virus is a potent antibody-inducer; this fact both limited its effects and made its trail easy to follow. As many as 80 percent of mice in some colonies had antibodies to the virus… Animals in contact with infected animals frequently developed antibodies to the polyoma virus although they rarely developed tumors… Even some of the laboratory workers who had handled the virus for long periods of time showed antibodies in their blood… Apparently Drs. Stewart and Eddy had not isolated a rare virus, they had come across one of the most common of viruses in the laboratory mouse. In most animals the virus led a completely occult life… The polyoma virus has no demonstrated or suggested relationship to human cancer.” [pp30-31] http://tobaccodocuments.org/lor/01134381-4442.html?zoom=750&ocr_position=above_foramatted&start_page=1&end_page=62
polioforever>>> this period, 1951-1953, is awfully convenient for the AEC and the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission’s hundred-year-surveillance recommendation, and just in time for experimental inclusion in polio vaccine. Along with the cancerous HeLa cells harvested in February of 1951 at Johns Hopkins (funneled to Univ. Minnesota lab of Scherer and Syverton, under direction of Leo Szilard) which became viral seed-stock for the Salk IPV, the polyoma SV40 combination may have been the “right formula” for the vaccine, announced by Jonas Salk to his supervisors in 1952.
“The polyomaviruses generally have a narrow host range and limited cell type tropism. They are able to infect cells of their natural hosts..that results in cell lysis [breakdown]. In addition, these viruses are also able to establish a persistent infection rarely associated with disease except when immunodeficiency
is induced. [p7]. …All five human polyomaviruses have high prevalence in the human population and infections start in childhood” http://labs.mmg.pitt.edu/gjoerup/polyoma_update.pdf
In an experiment to prove the structure and infectivity of polyoma (PY) virus, Salk researchers (who did the work prior at Caltech), Renato Dulbecco and Marguerite Vogt determined that “The DNA of polyoma virus is a ring molecule
..[and the] behavior of infectivity at alkali pH suggests that single-stranded rings are infectious; only further experiments may..decide whether this is true.” –published 1963 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC221161/?page=7
[1968, Cold Spring symposium] “Renato Dulbecco described his research on what happened to the DNA genomes of polyoma and SV40 tumor viruses after they have infected a cell. He showed that the viral DNAs were integrated into the host cell genome. This work foreshadowed research that was to become central to the efforts of Cold Spring Harbor Labratory through the 1970s and 1980s.” http://symposium.cshlp.org/site/misc/topic33.xhtml
Journal of the National Cancer Institute:
“Simian virus 40 (SV40), a polyomavirus of rhesus macaque origin, was discovered in 1960 as a contaminant of polio vaccines that were distributed to millions of people from 1955 through early 1963. SV40 is a potent DNA tumor virus that induces tumors in rodents and transforms many types of cells in culture, including those of human origin. This virus has been a favored laboratory model for mechanistic studies of molecular processes in eukaryotic cells and of cellular transformation. The viral replication protein, named large T-antigen (T-ag) is also the viral oncoprotein…
“SV40-neutralizing antibodies have been detected in individuals not exposed to contaminated polio vaccines. SV40 DNA has been identified in some normal human tissues…
“SV40 generally has been considered to be a monkey virus that rarely infected humans and played no role in human disease
… Recent findings suggest that the concepts of the rarity of SV40 infection in humans and the innocuousness of those infections are also in need of re-evaluation.” http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/91/2/119.full
polioforever>>>Whether this is backpeddling ‘for the record’ is not clear, but the possibility that simian vacuolating viruses (SV40) as not considered a threat to humans enhances the theory that they were (1) known long before 1960 and (2) sufficed for use as genetic “tags” in a long-term human radiation experiment.
“Ionizing radiation causes the formation of strand breaks in cellular DNA, as well as other types of lesions in the chromatin of cells. Some of the earliest investigations of the molecular basis of radiation-induced damage and the implications of enzymatic repair were done by Dr. H. S. Kaplan**. Because it is difficult to assay for DNA lesions in the large mammalian genome, the authors have developed a method of assaying for DNA double-strand breaks in the supercoiled nucleosome-complexed Simian virus 40 (SV40) genome, irradiated intracellularly. In this communication they present their measurements of the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to single-strand breaks (SSBs) ratio obtained from the intracellularly irradiated SV40 genome. After cobalt gamma ray and X ray irradiations, this ratio is about 1/10. Their methods and results are compared with pertinent data in the literature. If the DSBs/SSBs ratio of 1/10 for cellular chromatin is correct, a substantial number of DNA double-strand breaks are formed in a mammalian cell after moderate doses (1 Gy) of radiation. The implications of different types of DNA double-strand breaks are discussed.” http://worldwidescience.org/topicpages/r/radiation+inactivates+sv40.html
1955, medical particle accelerator
The development of particle accelerators for medical use is covered in a 1974 Janeway Lecture given by Dr. Milford Schulz, published as “The Supervoltage Story” http://www.ajronline.org/content/124/4/540.full.pdf
The image of Dr. Kaplan above is referenced on page 554. The type of accelerator shown is a postwar “microwave linear accelerator” operated at 5 million volts (5 megavolts of particle energy, 5MeV). Kaplan by no means was the first user of medical research accelerators. The Kellogg Radiation Lab of Caltech, established in 1930-1931, was in the forefront of medical usage under its chief Charles Lauritsen and dependent on the income generated by particle accelerator treatment.
[Chap7, The Invention of GMOs
"So it was at Stanford [San Francisco], not in St. Louis, that the first genetic manipulations took place. In 1972, as Monsanto was preparing to launch Roundup, Paul Berg succeeded in ‘recombining’ DNA– that is, putting together two fragments of DNA from different species into a hybrid molecule. A little later, his colleague Stanley Cohen announced that he had succeeded in transferring a frog gene into the DNA of a bacterium… These discoveries, which broke a law that had been considered inviolable, the impossibility of crossing what was known as the ‘species barrier’, created great excitement, along with deep concern, in the international scientific community. The worries turned into an uproar when Paul Berg announced his intention to insert a carcinogenic virus, SV40, from a monkey into an E.coli cell, a bacterium that colonizes the human digestive tract. Some scientific authorities, such as Robert Pollack, a cancer virus specialist, worried: “What will happen if the manipulated organism inadvertantly escapes from the laboratory?” The general outcry led to a temporary moratorium on genetic manipulation and, on February 25, 1975, the first international conference on recombinant DNA… But, at no point did they broach ethical questions, which were excluded from the outset. It was as though the biologists had already decided to ‘limit the involvement of the public and the government in their affairs to the minimum’. The message was soon received loud and clear by the future world leader in biotechnology.” [pp133-134, The World According to Monsanto, 2008, Marie-Monique Robin]
Maxine Frank Singer
“Singer was at the forefront of [the] rise of molecular biology [in the 1950s], starting with her research on enzymes… The artificial RNA polymers and trinucleotides she produced with Leon Heppel as a byproduct of their work on RNA structure and synthesis enabled Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich Matthaei to decipher the genetic code in the early 1960s…
“During a sabbatical in 1971-72, spent in the laboratory of Ernest Winocour at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovoth Israel, Singer began a new line of work on the DNA of simian virus 40, a polyoma virus isolated from the kidney tissue of Rhesus monkeys. SV40 was of interest to scientists both because of its structural simplicity.. and because it transforms mouse cell cultures in vitro
**, turning them into cancer cells. Singer showed that through a process of genetic recombination, SV40 can acquire DNA sequences from infected host cells
that make the virus defective in certain biological functions, such as plaque formation, and that such ‘substituted’ DNA can replicate even though it no longer codes for plaque formation. Singer’s discovery helped explain how defective viruses evolved and reproduced.” http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/retrieve/Narrative/DJ/p-nid/217
>>>Maxine Singer was at the Weizmann Institute during the period that Albert Sabin was its director(1970-1972).
“In 1972, one of Singer’s colleagues and personal friends Paul Berg of Stanford University was the first to create recombinant DNA molecules. He later voluntarily stopped conducting related experiments involving DNA manipulation in the genes of tumor-causing viruses…
“In 1974, Singer accepted a new position at NIH as chief of the Section of Nucleic Acid Enzymology, Division of Cancer Biology and Diagnosis (DCBD) at the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland. In 1980 she became chief of the DCBD’s Laboratory of Biochemistry. She held this post until 1988, when she became president of the Carnegie Institution…In the early 1990s.. Singer issued an article encouraging the public to try the first genetically engineered food to reach American supermarket shelves.” http://www.answers.com/topic/maxine-singer
Earlier SV40 work from Salk Institute fellow, Renato Dulbecco in 1968 demonstrates variable effectiveness of SV40 strains at successfully transmitting viral DNA for transgene purposes (e.g. virotherapy): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC224846/
David Baltimore sent a letter to the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, writing in May of 1975, “The potential for creation of new agents for biological warfare is inherent in this technology.” http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/access/DJBBHN.pdf
David Baltimore – 1989-1991, received his Ph.D at Rockefeller University in 1964 http://www.answers.com/topic/david-baltimore
; Salk Institute Fellow; Nobel Prize in 1975; also in 1975, Baltimore was an organizer of the Asilomar
[Monterey,CA] conference on recombinant DNA; David Baltimore is an expert on the immune system and AIDS
; instrumental in establishing the Whitehead Institute at MIT in 1982 and served as its first director; president of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) from 1997 to 2006
1976, internal NIH letter from Maxine Singer to Dr. Wallace P. Rowe
“Dear Wally: I share your concern about obtaining straight forward and honest adherence to the guidelines on recombinant DNA… there are rumors indicating that some scientists take differing views. Because of their lack of agreement with the assessments of potential hazards..they may not observe the recommendations. The disregard of the guidelines may, as you mention, be flagrant or covert… complex problems may arise…[but] I am uncomfortable with the mechanism you propose in your letter of 11 August..” http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/access/DJBBHV.pdf Rowe’s August 11 letter to Singer suggested a neutral and anonymous way of accepting whistleblower complaints to generate formal inquiries addressed to “irresponsible” researchers or labs asking for clarification. He suggests in his letter that a noncompliant (with NIH guidelines)private or foreign laboratory could become a “mecca for sabbaticals” http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/access/DJBBHS.pdf
Safety guidelines from Bio-hazard recombinant organisms http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/access/DJBBHK.pdf (Asilomar conference, guidelines on recombinant DNA)
Maxine Singer papers/letters http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/retrieve/Series/22051
“Berg’s 1971 landmark gene-splicing experiment (Figure 1) involved splicing a bit of the DNA of the bacterial virus known as lambda into the DNA of simian virus SV40, whose natural host is the monkey. The DNA of both these viruses occurs in closed loops. In the first step of Berg’s experiment the loops were each cut in one place by an enzyme, EcoRI. Next, to make the ends of these now-linear molecules stick together again, they were modified by two other enzymes using a procedure developed by Stanford colleagues. Then the two types of DNA were mixed together where they rejoined into loops in such a way that the new loops combined DNA from each source. Berg’s gene-splicing experiment resulted in the first man-made recombinant DNA (rDNA), as such molecules came to be called.” http://www.chemheritage.org/discover/chemistry-in-history/themes/pharmaceuticals/preserving-health-with-biotechnology/berg-boyer-cohen.aspx
polioforever>>>but not mouse cells. A mouse must be genetically engineered to host SV40 viral replication: called “knockout” mice for having their natural biochemical immune defense selectively knocked out. Cells alone [in vitro] can be pretreated to be susceptible if it’s not feasible to breed whole creatures.
, future Salk Institute personnel, Renato Dulbecco and Marguerite Vogt, observed cultured polyoma (PY) virus, writing, “results so far..reveal a situation novel in animal viruses and suggest the existence of a host-virus interaction with characteristics reminiscent of temperate bacteriophage. The PY virus was obtained from Dr. Rowe of the [NIH]… Ten weeks after infection [within a petri dish, or in vitro
], the cultures appeared to be made up entirely of the new cell cell type [called 'transformed',
by new genetic information]. They..contained no more degenerating cells than normal [cultures] and produced little virus. The new cells..had a tendency to grow in interwoven netlike structures.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC222842/?tool=pmcentrez
polioforever>>> this item is not a ‘breakthrough’, but an example of the kind of results observed in repeated experiments. There is nonspecific evidence in the literature so far that polyoma viruses were under experiment at Caltech at least as early as 1950 suggesting that there is a body of unpublished work with these ‘agents’ predating Lubwik Gross.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Rockefeller publication
 “At least four laboratories have reported that SV40 induces the malignant transformation of cell cultures prepared from embryonic or newborn hamsters. In two laboratories (33, 34) the transformation was associated with the continuous appearance of virus in the cultures. In the other two laboratories (9,35) infective virus could not be found in the transformed cultures… There is other evidence to show that a specific non-infectious antigen, in some way related to SV40, is present in the hamster tumor cells induced by this virus. Adult hamsters immunized with live SV40 become resistant to SV40 tumor cells, even when virus-free transformed cells are used for challenge. Injection of the murine papovavirus (polyoma) confers no such immunity, although suggestive crossings against SV40 were obtained with papovaviruses of rabbit and man.” http://jem.rupress.org/content/119/2/313.full.pdf
[page 10 of 23, or page 322 of the document]
Labs “(9,35)” where ” infective virus could not be found” refer to studies by ( lab 9) Asaria Ashkenazi and Joseph L. Melnick and (lab 35) H.M. Shein, J.F. Enders, J.D. Levinthal, and A.E. Burket.
Paul Berg:[Nobel prize autobiog.] ”I graduated from highschool (1943)..and enlisted in the Navy to be a flyer..[and] served on a submarine chaser through the end of the war. I returned to [Penn. State University] in the fall of 1946… As a project during the senior year, I studied..papers..of newly available radioisotopes as tracers for the study of intermediary metabolism [called psychobiology]…Western Reserve University..was my next destination…[and] a fortunate choice..[b]ecause of its pioneering work in this new field.
…Seeking more experience with enzymes, I studied for a year in Copenhagen with Herman Kalckar [who came to the Salk Inst
.].. and a second year with Arthur Kornberg at Washington University in St. Louis… After 6 years in St. Louis, I moved to Stanford University’s Medical Center
(1959) to help Kornberg set up the new department of biochemistry. In time, my interests shifted from..microorganisms to mammalian cells and I spent a year experimenting with Polyoma and SV40..with Renato Dulbecco at the Salk Institute.
Soon after, I returned to Stanford [and] conceived of using SV40 as a means for introducing new genes into mammalian cells…
My colleagues and I succeeded in developing a general way to join two DNAs together in vitro; in this case, a set of three genes responsible for metabolizing galactose in the bacterium E. coli
was inserted into the SV40 DNA genome. That work
led to the emergence of the recombinant DNA
technology ” http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1980/berg-autobio.html
polioforever>>>the SV40-E.coli work that Berg and Singer said he “voluntary” withdrew from in ’72 was already done. ba-da-bing.
Evidently, Singer, Berg, Monsanto and Salk et.al. were playing on the same team.
– “paternal grandfather had changed the family name from Queller..to avoid the draft by taking on the identity of someone [else]… [Kornberg's] internship was at Strong Memorial Hospital in Rochester, New York between 1941-1942 [site of Manhattan Project plutonium injections and fluoride research] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Kornberg
; in 1959, Kornberg won a Nobel Prize “for synthesizing DNA in a test tube” http://www.the-scientist.com/news/home/53796/
, and completed two additional science degrees in 1962, one from Rochester and one from Yeshiva University.
“Viruses have two types of reproductive cycles; (a) virulent or lytic infection, in which new virus particles are made and released (burst) from the host cell, and (b) The virus genome may become integrated into [the genome] of the host cell and be replicated as part of the host as it grows… called lysogeny in the case of bacteriophage [bacterial viruses], and transformation in animal viruses.
…”In a lysogenic infection, the virus must (1) repress expression of the genes used to initiate lytic [cell-bursting] infections and (2) insert a double-stranded DNA copy into the host chromosome.
— “Alpha 1-antitrypsin..deficiency disease is one of the more common hereditary disorders that affects the liver and lung. The liver disease is thought to be caused by the accumulation of an abnormal..protein in hepacytes… [W]e designed specific ribozymes..using a newly developed simian virus (SV40) vector system..employed for..inhibition [of the] abnormal..gene” http://www.nature.com/gt/journal/vb/n1/full/3300793a.html
2001 — “Vectors based on recombinant SV40 viruses (rSV40) are highly effective in delivering transgene expression… We tested here whether these vectors could be used..with inhibition of HIV-1 by Tat activation response (TAR) decoys… These decoys were delivered..in two different human T lymphocyte lines and..human..blood..cells (pbmc). Gene delivery was confirmed by PCR… These transgene constructs protected all types of cells from HIV-1… Thus, rSV40 vectors effectively deliver HIV-1 inhibitory RNAs.
Is SV40 contagious or cancer-causing? One “maybe”, four “no” and then some…
page citations: 1998-2004
“Exposure to SV40-contaminated poliovirus vaccine and the risk of cancer
– review of the epidemiological evidence…Recent  molecular biology and epidemiological studies suggest the SV40 may be contagiously transmitted in humans by horizontal infection, indpendently from the earlier administration of SV40-contaminated vaccines… Contrasting reports appeared in the literature on the circulation of SV40 in humans by contagious transmission and its association, as a possible etiologic cofactor
, with specific human tumors… [A] considerable debate has developed in the scientific community” http://lib.bioinfo.pl/pmid:9776245
“Lack of serologic evidence for prevalent simian virus 40 infection in humans
;..we screened human sera for antibodies to SV40..using recombinant SV40 virus-like particles…RESULTS: [polyoma] BKV and JCV antibodies were prevalent in all case patients and control subjects examined. In contrast, only 6.6% of serum amples were positive for SV40 antibodies… These data..do not provide support for SV40 being a prevalent human pathogen.” J. of the National Cancer Institute, Oct2003 http://lib.bioinfo.pl/pmid:9776245
“Thirty-five year mortality following receipt of SV40-contaminated polio vaccine during the neonatal period; …We report the follow-up of a cohort of 1073 persons, unique because they received SV40-contaminated poliovirus vaccines as newborns in 1961-63… as of 1979 [we] identified 15deaths, none due to cancer…[F]or the years 1979-1996 [there were] no deaths due to tumours of the types putatively associated with SV40..”
“Polyomavirus SV40 infections in Kazakhstan… known to have used potentially contaminated SV40 polio vaccines before 1962… Importantly, 60% of the subjects seropositive for SV40 were born from 1969 to 1980s, when poliovaccines were fre from SV40..”
“Case-control study of cancer among US Army veterans exposed to simian virus 40-contaminated adenovirus vaccine
; …SV40 was an accidental contaminant of vaccines prodced in monkey kidney tissue cultures in the 1950s and early 1960s, including..adenovirus vaccine given to several hundred thousand US military recruits… These findings do not support a role for SV40 in the development of these cancers,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Aug 2004 http://lib.bioinfo.pl/pmid:9776245
[2002, NIH] “Molecular Identification of SV40 Infection in Human Subjects and Possible Association with Kidney Disease“…”This study demonstrates for the first time that human kidney can serve as a reservoir for SV40 replication..”
“Dr. Michele Carbone [addressed a conference],..‘Sixty-two papers from thirty laboratories from around the world have reported SV40 in human tissues
and tumours, … It is very difficult to believe that all of these papers, all of the techniques used and all of the people around the world are wrong.’ After
he had finished, I was dismayed to hear scientists from leading laboratories confirm what he had said, by telling how they had found SV40 in over 80% of some
childhood brain tumours, in 85% of deadly mesotheliomas, in about 25% of bone cancers – and in 40% of spermal fluid from a small sample of apparently healthy
males! But not all the scientists present were in agreement… I also met a lawyer who had spoken briefly at one session, Stanley Kops, who turned out to
hold many documents acquired through legal actions that proved SV40 continued to contaminate the polio vaccine well past the date when this was supposed to have
“Mesothelioma, a malignancy associated with asbestos, has been recently  linked to simian virus 40 (SV40). We found that infection of human mesothelial cells by SV40 is very different from the semipermissive infection thought to be characteristic of human cells. Mesothelial cells are uniformly infected but not lysed by SV40, a mechanism related to p53, and undergo cell transformation at an extremely high rate. Exposure of mesothelial cells to asbestos complemented SV40 mutants in transformation. Our data provide a mechanistic explanation for the ability of SV40 to transform mesothelial cells preferentially and indicate that asbestos and SV40 may be cocarcinogens.” http://www.pnas.org/content/97/18/10214.abstract
[from nature.com, OPINION] “An increasing number of scientific reports have described evidence for a polyomavirus, simian virus 40, in a highly select group of human tumours. How did a simian virus infect humans and is the virus a passenger in tumours or is it important in their pathogenesis? http://www.nature.com/nrc/journal/v2/n12/abs/nrc947.html
…”SV40-like sequences are present in [%] human bone tumors” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8760294
…”Fluoride is a known mutagen”…”fluoride can in fact induce osteosarcomas in both animals and humans.” http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/cancer/osteosarcoma.html
Albany California, which is experiencing a high rate of mesothelioma, is situated across the bay east of San Francisco, bordering Berkeley. “Albany’s early days were intertwined with the gold and dynamite industries… and Albany became home to several powder plants.” http://www.mesothelioma.com/asbestos-exposure/states/california/albany/ Formerly called Ocean View, Albany was also a site for Alcan Aluminum, Cutter Laboratories, DuPont and the Industrial Forge Company among other industries, having the distinction of a central locale on the Bay which also placed it in a fallout zone for prevailing winds: to the southwest, Hunters Point, and to the north, Mare Island. “After World War II and until 1969, the Hunters Point shipyard was the site of the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory, the U.S. military’s largest facility for applied nuclear research. The yard was also used after the war when ships from Operation Crossroads were decontaminated. Because of all the testing, there is widespread radiological contamination of the site. In 1989, the base was declared a Superfund site. The Navy closed the shipyard and Naval base in 1994…” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Francisco_Naval_Shipyard
Will they admit that fluoride and radiation are co-carcinogens?
Interview with Mr. Edward Haslam, author of ‘Dr. Mary’s Monkey’ http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-678503303319704937#
E.H.: “To understand the background to this, you have to understand [Dr. Alton] Ochsner’s connection to the polio vaccine; and when the polio vaccine was produced there were several laboratories –I believe the number was 6– producing the vaccine, and Ochsner was one of the major stockholders of one of these laboratories. He had also been one of the people promoting the release of the polio vaccine all along. In fact, the situation was so intense that when the Francis trials occurred up in Michigan and it was said the polio vaccine was safe, at the last minute they asked Bernice Eddy at the National Institutes of Health, who was the official vaccine safety tester, to test the vaccines. When she injected the vaccines into her monkeys, she got back dead and crippled monkeys. So, she tried to delay the release of the vaccine. But the problem was that every day they waited there was another hundred children getting polio, and there was a lot of inertia on it all the way back to President Roosevelt pushing for this with the March of Dimes and everything else. Ochsner was so convinced that Jonas Salk’s vaccine was safe that he decided to publicly inoculate his own grandchildren with the vaccine in front of the faculty of Tulane Medical School. The result of this bold and courageous action was that his grandson died from polio and his granddaughter got polio.
….At the time that I started [investigating], I was not aware of the SV40 issue…but I’d also heard about the contamination of the polio vaccine and I did not know if I could document it..but..there was very good documentation out there supporting the knowledge that the polio vaccine was contaminated with the cancer-causing virus –several of them, in fact– but the most dangerous one was SV40 which the experts say today is the most carcinogenic..entity they have ever found…
One of the most interesting and frankly disturbing points in this entire investigation is that there is some level of connection between Dr. Alton Ochsner and Lee Harvey Oswald, and I can say that completely and confidently because [there is a legacy of evidence, including a record album of Oswald's radio debate]…This man [Dr. Ochsner] was the president of the American Cancer Society. What is the president of the American Cancer Society doing tangled up with Lee Harvey Oswald? I think the answer involves cancer….
…Particle beam accelerators are used in cancer research…the American Cancer Society had a number of programs that they financed and sponsored for that… We were able to locate the man who said he built [a particle] accelerator in New Orleans..on the grounds of the U.S. Public Health Service hospital…
My conclusion is that this medical Manhattan project that was on the grounds of the U.S. Public Health Service hospital in New Orleans..was using a linear particle accelerator for the purose of..mutation of cancer-causing viruses, and the danger and ethical issues involved..is why they kept it so secret.
….There was another [covert] laboratory which was discovered..by the investigative team working for [Jim] Garrison’s investigation on the Kennedy assassination. This was an underground laboratory which was reportedly using cancer-causing viruses to create cancer and what is particularly disturbing about this laboratory is the location..[which] was in the hands of people who can easily be described as right-wing political extremists.”
A critique of Ed Haslam’s book, Dr. Mary’s Monkey, will be added on its own page. According to Haslam, the monkey-virus polio vaccine contamination was a huge mistake discovered halfway through the administration of Salk’s IPV (through 1957). Based on this assumption, Dr. Mary’s Monkey proposes that a “well intentioned” but super-secret anti-cancer vaccine ‘Manhattan-type project’ operated out of a highly guarded top secret particle accelerator facility at the Marine Hospital in New Orleans, before and during the Kennedy assassination.
Part of the JFK assassination conspiracy was a plot to kill Fidel Castro by giving him cancer with injections and x-rays. In the words of Judyth Vary Baker (Lee Oswald’s girlfriend), during her film segment of the documentary The Men Who Killed Kennedy, Ms. Baker revealed her role as a 19-year-old cancer researcher:
[from the episode "The Love Affair", segments 3 and 4]
“I convinced Dr. Ochsner and others that the real thing we needed to do was pull down Castro’s immune system by using several ploys, and then when the cancer’s introduced into his body, it would be found in his blood system and they’d put him in front of the x-ray again and again and again. Supposedly he’d be getting treatments to kill the cancer when actually his immune system was getting destroyed. That could be done, in other words, Castro could be eliminated by using x-ray and they’ll think that it’s the side effects from lung cancer. And that was my idea” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uBbe0jexWn4&NR=1
[the secret US 'cancer' team]..went to Jackson Mental Hospital..[with] these prisoners that were going to be injected…and at that time those prisoners received the injections that were necessary to begin that terrible round of injections and x-ray, injections and x-ray..that they hoped would actually kill these people.”
Ms. Baker makes it known that her training involved transferring human cancer-cell material to mice (i.e. Tom Dooley’s melanoma tissue) and it is an open question whether she had an awareness of working with SV40 in the “super-secret” cancer assassination plot.
The National Cancer Institute reports:
“Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a virus that infects several species of monkeys and typically does not cause symptoms or disease in them. The virus was discovered in 1960 in rhesus macaque monkey kidney cells that were used in the production of the original Salk and Sabin polio vaccines. Since the mass immunization program for polio began in 1955 before the discovery of the virus, contaminated vaccine lots were inadvertently used for the first few years of the program.
When reports appeared in 1961 that injection of SV40 into hamsters could induce tumors, the United States government instituted a screening program requiring all new lots of poliovirus vaccine be free of SV40 because of concerns about possible adverse effects on human health. (Earlier lots were not withdrawn from the mass immunization program.) No SV40 has been found in the polio vaccine lots tested after 1963. The polio vaccine currently used in the United States is produced under carefully regulated conditions designed to ensure that contamination with SV40 does not occur. As a result of the earlier contamination, however, it is estimated that 10 million to 30 million people vaccinated in the United States from 1955 through early 1963 were inadvertently exposed to live SV40.” http://www.cancer.gov/newscenter/sv40
This study backs up the government : “During the period when poliovirus vaccines were contaminatedwith live SV40, inactivated poliovirus vaccine was frequentlyadministered to pregnant women in the United States. Conceivably,mothers acquiring SV40 infection as a result of vaccinationduring pregnancy could have transmitted the virus to their children,either in utero or shortly after birth. In laboratory animals,SV40 acquired during the newborn period is especially tumorigenic(5). Nonetheless, large-scale follow-up studies of childrenwho received SV40-contaminated poliovirus vaccine as young children(even as neonates) have not revealed them to be at increasedcancer risk.” http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/160/4/306
Contaminated polio vaccines were an instant problem in the 1955 Salk IPV program –by May, just weeks after it began, the vaccine was banned in 20 states. The contamination was blamed on the Cutter Labotatory and the public was reassured enough for the inoculations to resume, but it was only the beginning…
Dr. Bernice Eddy, working under Joseph Smadel (AFEB) found anomalous viral material in the polio vaccines. Her further experiments led to the discovery of a cancer-causing agent. Within the year after reporting it to Dr. Smadel, Bernice Eddy was moved out of the department. It took over 20 years for the story about the Simian Virus #40 to break into the newspapers. The virus was in the hastily approved Sabin OPV as well which did not get approval until 1962, which means of course that it was knowingly contaminated with SV40.
Dr. Ruth Kirschstein at the FDA gave her approval for the Sabin vaccine http://www.smokershistory.com/kirschst.htm
SV40 and Human Cancer http://www.gulfwarvets.com/virus.htm …”Federal health officials are understandably concerned that any link between SV40 and human cancers could frighten people away from the polio vaccine and vaccination in general. They stress that before SV40 in the polio vaccine can be linked definitively to cancer, the proposition must clear important scientific hurdles. Carbone and others must prove that the SV40 they have found is not a laboratory contaminant. They must demonstrate that SV40 is responsible for the cellular damage that leads to cancer and is not just a benign “passenger” in human tumors. And they must show that it was introduced into human beings through the polio vaccine.” …..
“Janet Rowley, the editor of the journal Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer and a professor of molecular genetics and cell biology at the University of Chicago, is a pioneer in the study of chromosome abnormalities in cancer. Rowley’s groundbreaking research was itself called into question for years. “People didn’t believe that chromosome abnormalities had anything to do with leukemia,” she recalled. “It took a long time to break down that prejudice.” …”Everybody had assumed that mesothelioma was associated with asbestos. One of the important things in medicine is not to let your assumptions and those generally accepted paradigms obscure the fact that maybe there’s more.”……