http://www.salk.edu 10010 N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California
The Salk Institute For Biological Studies was opened in 1962 (in temporary buildings) on 27 acres of land given for its construction by the City of San Diego and paid for by the March of Dimes ($15 million). The contemporary Institute employs a staff of approx. 1,000 from the world over. Among the founding Fellows of SALK, one notices a preponderence of physicists from the Manhattan Project and military-weapons-complex The Institute was established to focus on genetics and neuroscience.
“The Salk Institute, La Jolla, California (1959–1965) was to be a campus composed of three main clusters: meeting and conference areas, living quarters, and laboratories. Only the laboratory cluster, consisting of two parallel blocks enclosing a water garden, was built.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Kahn
http://www.salk.edu/about/history/.html ”In December 1959, Salk and architect Louis Kahn began a unique partnership to design such a facility. Salk summarized his aesthetic objectives by telling the architect to “create a facility worthy of a visit by Picasso.” Kahn, who was a devoted artist before he became an architect, was able to respond to this challenge.
In March 1960, Salk and Kahn went to the San Diego City Council to request a gift of land on the Torrey Pines Mesa overlooking the Pacific Ocean. They had a pledge of support from the March of Dimes and a vision of what might be possible if this land were provided. Approval was given and later affirmed by the citizens of San Diego in a special referendum in June 1960.”
San Diego Mayor, Charles C. Dail, is credited with “changing the face of downtown” during the formative years between 1958 and 1963 https://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/90winter/sdincimages.htm
[from the Jonas Salk Papers http://orpheus.ucsd.edu/speccoll/testing/html/mss0001a.html#biohist ]
“By 1960 Salk had chosen San Diego as the site for what would become the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. A substantial amount of start-up funds came from the National Foundation-March of Dimes. The citizens of San Diego, through a referendum, made a gift of pueblo lots in the La Jolla area, close to the new University of California, San Diego. The Institute began operation in temporary quarters in 1963, and permanent buildings, designed by architect Louis Kahn, were completed in 1967. The buildings soon gained international fame for their dramatic and innovative design.
“The Salk Institute succeeded in assembling an outstanding and highly innovative staff, including many Nobel laureates. The original fellows of the Institute included: mathematician Jacob Bronowski; biophysicist and immunochemist Melvin Cohn; Francis Crick, a physicist, chemist, and molecular biologist; Renato Dulbecco, a physician, bacteriologist, virologist, and physicist; physicist Edwin Lennox; biochemist Jacques Monod; physicist and biologist Leo Szilard; and Warren Weaver, an engineer, mathematician, and physicist. Weaver also served as chairman of the Board of Trustees. Charles S. Wilson began work as the first General Manager before the Institute began in La Jolla, and William Glazier continued in the post after 1963. Dr. Salk himself served as the Institute’s director until 1975, followed by Augustus Kinzel, and later Fredric de Hoffman.
“The research conducted at the Institute came to be recognized as highly significant by the international scientific community. Included in this research has been the study of molecular-cellular mechanisms in genetics, immunology, and neurobiology, and the application of these studies to the prevention of cancer, diabetes, and myasthenia gravis. Institute researchers have also studied problems of genetic defects, aging, fertility control, alcoholism, and the biological foundations of language acquisition, language disorders, and learning.
“After moving to San Diego, Dr. Salk continued to conduct his own research with his own laboratory staff. Among the research carried out by the Salk Lab has been studies aimed at understanding and manipulating the immune system in its relationship to the control of autoimmune and neoplastic diseases such as cancer and multiple sclerosis (MS). During the 1970s Dr. Salk devoted much attention to the prevention and treatment of MS, and between 1978 and 1980 he participated in an extensive MS study with a team headed by Dr. John S. Romine of the University of California, San Diego. With funding from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, the Salk-Romine study tested the use of myelin basic protein as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of MS”….
Founding Funders http://tobaccodocuments.org/ctr/11317158-7172.html
National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis [see March of Dimes page]
National Institutes for Health
National Science Foundation
Gildred Foundation – http://www.aerospacemuseum.org/library/gildred.html; Theodore Gildred Sr (1900-1967) 33rd degree Freemason, aviator, real estate developer in South America, Mexico and San Diego http://www.sandiegoairandspace.org/collections/collection_item.php?id=59
Ford Foundation – http://www.answers.com/topic/ford-foundation; the Ford at this time was particularly funding Latin American students to study neo-conservative economics in the US– students who went on to become “shock doctors” of global free trade.
Rockefeller Foundation – see Rockefeller Institute page http://polioforever.wordpress.com/the-rockefeller-institute/
Agency For International Development (USAID)
The Sloan Foundation – http://www.sloan.org/;”The foundation was early in perceiving the threat of bioterrorism and was active in that area for years before the events of 9/11.” http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~rgomory/
Armand Hammer endowed the Armand Hammer Center for Cancer Biology
The American Cancer Society – controlled by the Laskers
National Multiple Sclerosis Society
Russell Sage Foundation – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russell_Sage_Foundation ; “The first board of directors of Russell Sage Foundation consisted of Daniel Coit Gilman, Helen Gould, Margaret Sage and Dwight Morrow”–others included Beardsley Ruml, author of ‘witholding tax’, Robert McCormick Adams, and Frederic A. Delano, uncle of FDR and son of opium trader Warren Delano http://www.truthwinds.com//siterun_data/government/new_world_order/news.php?q=1216314837 ;RSF Chairman Oscar Ruebhausen was a close friend and adviser to Nelson Rockefeller; special area of interest was determining nuclear policy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oscar_M._Ruebhausen; http://www.nytimes.com/2004/12/12/nyregion/12ruebhausen.html?_r=1
U.S. Steel Foundation – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Steel
Hazen Foundation – http://www.hazenfoundation.org/
Fleischmann Foundation – Max C. Fleischmann Foundation of Nevada http://www.knowledgecenter.unr.edu/specoll/mss/90-36.html; Max (1877-1951) was the brother of Julius, mayor of Cincinnati; sons of Charles Fleischmann of the Fleischmann Co. (yeast, margarine, and gin distiller) bought by Standard Brands http://www.earlyaviators.com/efleisch.htm; http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/lehman/chrono.html?company=standard_brands_incorporated
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation – http://www.answers.com/topic/mellon-foundation; http://www.answers.com/topic/andrew-w-mellon; see the FLUORIDE page for more information www.polioforever.wordpress.com/fluoride/
Edgar M. Bronfman -(below) and here: “Tides is an umbrella foundation, which dispenses the philanthropy of members of the Bronfman family and Peter Buttenweiser” http://www.smokershistory.com/Bronfman.htm; ”Tides Foundation..is suspected of being a major funding conduit for..George Soros” http://www.newsrealblog.com/2010/09/29/the-lefts-bag-man-drummond-pike-abruptly-quits-tides-foundation/; Edgar’s father “Sam Bronfman—a billionaire—was one of attorney Louis Bloomfield’s wealthiest clients” http://www.jfkmontreal.com/power_brokers.htm; Bloomfield was the chairman of Permindex http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=6622&st=30
John M. King – oil wildcatter; King Resources Co., Colorado Corporation http://www.rinfret.com/vesco.html#anchor616978 (“a close associate of Tibor Rosenbaum’s protege..Bernard Cornfeld” according to FINAL JUDGEMENT author Michael Collins Piper, p.54; JFK assassination research involving Permindex; see ‘Dr. Mary’s Monkey’ page; King offered New Orleans D.A. Jim Garrison a bribe to withdraw his suit against Clay Shaw) Time magazine writes up John McCandish King (1960) http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,909285-2,00.html
Hinda and Richard Rosenthal Foundation – http://www.nytimes.com/1998/06/17/classified/paid-notice-deaths-rosenthal-richard-l.html?pagewanted=1; http://www.quackwatch.com/12Web/rosenthal.html; “Rosenthal was President of Citizens Utilities Company from 1946 to 1989″ (smokershistory.com); ” Citizens Utilities Company is likely the most fully diversified utility company in the United States. The company provides telecommunications, electric power, gas, water, and wastewater treatment services to more than 800,000 customers in 13 states.” http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Citizens-Utilities-Company-Company-History.html; http://www.nytimes.com/1990/06/26/business/business-people-founder-of-century-joins-citizens-utilities.html
Alice and Marie McHugh – “Equitable Vice President Glenn McHugh was also a trustee of the Salk Institute” http://www.smokershistory.com/Salk.htm#Glenn_McHugh
“Roger Revelle, popularizer of Global Warming and mentor to Al Gore Jr., said of Jonas Salk that he was “not
too bright” and had been made a living legend by a force beyond his merits. Perhaps that was harsh of
Revelle. Salk’s personal ambitions were no less than universal in scope, which evolved as his utopian books
and activities while he was the figurehead of the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California. Arranged for him in
1960, and paid for with 15 million in NFIP March of Dimes dollars, the immediate usefulness of the
post-vaccine Jonas Salk was to break down a local “real covenant” in La Jolla against property ownership by
Jews and create a very exclusive environment for the collaboration of Scripps Institute of Oceanography
and the University of California. UC was the longstanding contract-holding manager of Los Alamos, and up in
the Bay area its teaching hospital was the world’s busiest polio center, San Francisco Children’s Hospital
(today called the California Pacific Medical Center). At the urging of his friend J. Robert Oppenheimer, Salk
was staked out on the most prime of prime real estate in southern Cal where the Salk building gleamed like
“the modern equivalent of a temple of Zeus beside the Aegean”, designed by architect Louis Kahn. (p.270
Oshinsky). The opportunity for Jonas Salk signaled a major change in his personal life. He divorced his wife,
married a French painter, and began living out the dream of his Faustian deal…” http://www.rocfern.com/jennlake/PolioThen,Now,andForeverPartIII.html
Jacob Bronowski; mathematician, founding Salk Fellow “resident humanist”, authored ‘The Ascent of Man’ http://www.answers.com/topic/jacob-bronowski; Bronowski chaired the international Council for Biology in Human Affairs.
Leo Szilard (1898-1964) physicist, founding Salk Fellow ; author of the “Einstein Letter” urging FDR to make the Atomic Bomb, turned to microbiology and influence-peddling after WWII. Leo Szilard Papers http://orpheus.ucsd.edu/speccoll/testing/html/mss0032a.html, “Fathers of the Bomb, Leo Szilard” http://www.rocfern.com/jennlake/FathersofTheBombPartIILeoSzilard.html; Leo Szilard’s written works http://www.dannen.com/biblio.html
John J. McCloy, lawyer; Assistant Secretary of War; I.G. Farben counsel; Chairman of Salk Board of Trustees; called “Chairman of the American Establishment” for his notoriously long and influential list of directorates including High Comissioner of Germany (postWWII), Chase Manhattan Bank, Ford Foundation, and the World Bank (1947-49) http://www.answers.com/topic/mccloy-john-jay Article “John J. McCloy and the Atomic Bombing of Japan” http://www.doug-long.com/mccloy.htm ; “McCloy was a correspondent of Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss, Atomic Energy Comission [see biog. page] between 1941 and 1971. Fellow Salk trustee Warren Weaver was also a Strauss correspondent (1947-1967)” http://www.smokershistory.com/Salk.htm ; member of the Warren Commission inquest into the JFK assassination. www.polioforever.wordpress.com/john-j-mccloy/
Warren Weaver, mathematician/physicist; Vice-president of the Rockefeller Foundation; Salk Chairman; obsessed with Alice In Wonderland; graduate of University of Wisconsin and CalTech http://www.hutchinsweb.me.uk/Weaver-2000.pdf ; “Weaver was Chairman of the Sloan Kettering Institute’s Committee on Scientific Policy and a member of the Executive Committee during 1955-57…member of the National Advisory Cancer Council from 1957 to 1960… Weaver was a member of the National Advisory Cancer Council in 1958..when it established a Panel on Viruses and Cancer with Stanhope Bayne-Jones (Skull & Bones 1910) as Chairman.” http://www.smokershistory.com/Salk.htm#Warren_Weaver; Weaver on Sloan Kettering’s Board 1963 with Lewis Strauss, Laurance Rockefeller et.al. http://tobaccodocuments.org/lor/01134381-4442.html?zoom=750&ocr_position=above_foramatted&start_page=1&end_page=62
Scripps Institute (also in Jupiter Florida http://www.scripps.edu/florida/)
UCSD campus <<>> Joseph Stokes III became the first dean of Medicine at UCSD. His father was a ‘polio expert’ who first pioneered gamma globulin vaccine in the 1930s and assisted Wm.McD. Hammon in the 1951-1952 polio gamma globulin trials. Stokes III hired UCSD’s charter medical faculty http://content.cdlib.org/xtf/view?docId=hb4p30063r&doc.view=frames&chunk.id=div00062&toc.depth=1&toc.id=
SALK INSTITUTE Board of Trustees, meetings were typically held in New York
Chairmans of the Board
John J. McCloy – “Chairman of the Establishment”
Warren Weaver – Rockefeller Foundation
Frederick B. Rentschler II – (1996) CEO Beatrice Foods, Northwest Airlines http://www.vanderbilt.edu/boardoftrust/cmembers/rentschler.html
Jerome Kohlberg - (2002) senior partner at Bear Stearns & Co; founding partner of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts (KKR), “ A pioneer of the leveraged buyouts (LBOs) that privatized many American corporations in the 1980s…Kohlberg believed a company would be better managed if it were owned by a small group of highly motivated investors–often including the top company executives–rather than thousands of shareholders who rarely had the knowledge or time to make sure the business was being run effectively. It would remain a key principle of KKR’s operations throughout the firm’s history.” http://www.answers.com/topic/kohlberg-kravis-roberts-co Kohlberg’s former partner, Henry R. Kravis, is a director of the Rockefeller Foundation.
Irwin Jacobs – (2006) co-founder of Qualcomm, “one of the richest men in the world…He revolutionized cell phone communication around the world” http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20050626/news_1n26jacobs.html; Qualcomm developed OmniTRACS, global GPS satellite tracking for “fleet management” http://www.qsl.net/n9zia/omnitracs/index.html; Jacobs was nicknamed “Irv the Liquidator” for “taking big stakes in Fortune 500 conglomerates, usually with the goal of unlocking value by breaking them up.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irwin_L._Jacobs
Vice-Chairmans of the Board
Jerome S. Hardy – Executive Vice President of the Dreyfus Corporation; former Vice President of Time Inc. (publisher of Life Magazine, and Time Books)
Marc I. Stern – Qualcomm director; JD from Columbia Law; senior vp of Allied-Signal; CEO of TCW Group Inc; Societe Generale subsidiary GIMS North America (Global Investment
Management Services) http://people.Forbes.com/profile/marc-i-stern/66553
Ted Waitt - co-founder of Gateway Inc. http://wid.waittinstitute.org/ted-waitt; Feb.2011, the Waitt Foundation funded the ‘Waitt Advanced Biophotonics Center’ at the Salk with a $20 million gift http://waittfoundation.org/waitt-advanced-biophotonics-center-grand-opening
Richard J. Freeman – president of the San Diego Padres
Sol Linowitz -(founding Trustee and Vice-Chair) http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A48682-2005Mar18.html; “Linowitz and fellow Salk trustee John Gardner were directors of Time Inc. in 1966. (The Rockefeller File, by Gary Allen.) In 1974, Linowitz was Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations Commission on Latin American Relations (chiefly funded by the Ford Foundation and Rockefellers), whose fellow members included Peter G. Peterson; In 1975, he was a director of Pan Am; and in 1976-77, during the time he was negotiating the Panama Canal Treaty, he was a director of Time Inc., Pan Am, and Marine Midland Bank (The Panama Canal Sellout, by Edward Rasen. Penthouse, Nov. 1979.)” http://www.smokershistory.com/Salk.htm
Edgar M. Bronfman -(founding Trustee) owner of Seagram’s http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Bronfman,_Sr ; father Samuel Bronfman parlayed a distillery and bootlegging fortune into petroleum in 1963: “In 1963,..Bronfman plunged into an unfamiliar business venture by aggressively purchasing huge oil holdings. He acquired Texas Pacific Oil and its subsidiaries in India, Malaysia, Guatemala, Indonesia, and Italy..” http://www.jfkmontreal.com/power_brokers.htm; Edgar M. Bronfman and brother Charles R. Bronfman were directors of E.I. DuPont de Nemours from 1981 to 1995 http://www.smokershistory.com/Bronfman.htm; Edgar Bronfman bought 11.6% of Biotechnica International in 1981; owns USA Networks (cable TV, SyFy channel); ”after the collapse of [Soviet]communism Bronfman was recognized as the leading figure in world Jewry when he was asked to chair the World Jewish Restitution Organization“[p222, The Bronfmans, author Nicholas Faith]; chairman of Hillel International http://www.hillel.org/about/news/2005/nov/20051114_chairman.htm; president of the World Jewish Congress (est. 1936); son Edgar Jr. is the Chair/CEO of Warner Music Group http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warner_Music_Group
John W. Gardner -(founding Trustee);President of the Carnegie Corporation from 1955-65 http://www.smokershistory.com/Salk.htm#John_W._Gardner; Secretary of HEW (LBJ admin.) 1965-68 http://www.answers.com/topic/john-w-gardner ; director of Time Inc. “In 1942, John W. Gardner headed the Latin American section of the Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service, , which was under the jurisdiction of the Federal Communications Commission. In 1943, he joined the Marine Corps and the Office of Strategic Services, the precursor of the Central Intelligence Agency, and served in Washington DC, Italy, and Austria. (Cabinet Officials – John W. Gardner. US Social Security Administration.) ….As HEW Secretary, he helped push through the Medicare legislation, which has been the single greatest cause of rising health costs. He also helped create the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, providing a taxpayer-funded propaganda network for the ruling elite; Board of Trustees of Stanford University from 1968 to 1982. Gardner served Nelson Rockefeller’s Special Studies Project, 1956-1957.
*”The Carnegie foundations.. interlock with the John and Mary Markle Foundation, established 1927 with $50 million. It dispenses largesse to journalists who espouse the goals of the World Order. Markle was the biggest coal operator in the U.S., partners with the Roosevelt and Delano family in Kentania Coal Corp… The first president of Markle Foundation was Frank C. Vanderlip, member of the Jekyll Island team which wrote the Federal Reserve Act in 1910. Lloyd N. Morrissette is now president; he has been vice pres. Carnegie Corp. since 1967, formerly chairman the Rand Corp., director American Council on Germany; directors are Daniel Pomeroy Davison, son of F. Trubee Davison and Dorothy Peabody–[D.P.Davison] is president of U.S. Trust, director J.P. Morgan, Morgan Guaranty Trust, and Scovill; Joel L. Fleishman who is also director of Fleishman Foundation, Ford Foundation, and Alfred P. Sloan Foundation; Barbara Hauptfuhrer, wife of Robert P. (Schoenhut) Hauptfuhrer, he is vice pres. of Sun Oil; F. Warren Hellman, has been with Lehman Bros. since 1959, president of Peabody International Co.; Maximilian Kempner, lawyer, born in Berlin, member of the historic von Mendelsohn banking family, is director American Council on Germany; Gertrude Michelson, vice pres of Macy’s since 1947, director Chubb, Quaker Oats, Harper & Row, Federal Reserve Bank of N.Y., and Spelman College; Richard M. Stewart, president of Anaconda… The Carnegie and Markle Foundations also interlock with the American Council on Germany, founded in 1952, which exercises control over the “free” nation of West Germany. Its director is David Klein…Chairman of the trustees of German Marshall Fund is Eugene B. Skolnikoff, Rhodes Scholar, director CEIP, Ford Foundation, Rockefeller Foundation 1963-65, chairman Center for International Studies, spec. asst to President of U.S. 1958-63 and 1977-81, president of Federation of Jewish Agencies, Hebrew Union College..”,etc., –Eustace Mullins, The World Order; A Study in the Hegemony of Parasitism, Ch7 The Foundations
Andrew F. Brimmer -(founding Trustee); Governor of the Federal Reserve http://www.answers.com/topic/andrew-brimmer; “Member of the Federal Reserve Board, 1966-1974; President of Brimmer & Co. since 1976; director of Airborne Express, American Security Bank, BankAmerica Corp., BlackRock Investment Income Trust, Carr Realty Corp., Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Co., E.I. duPont de Nemours & Co., The Gannett Co., International Harvester, Mercedes-Benz of North America, Navistar International, PHH Corp., and United Airlines. He was a trustee of the Ford Foundation” http://www.smokershistory.com/Salk.htm#Andrew_F._Brimmer; Tuskegee University Board of Directors (1965) and Chairman (1982)
Robert W. Holley – biochemist; http://www.answers.com/topic/holley-robert-william
Salvador Luria – (1912- )http://www.answers.com/topic/salvador-luria The Italian Luria trained in radiology and worked with Enrico Fermi’s team at the University of Rome 1937-38, moving then to the Institute of Radium in Paris http://www.faqs.org/health/bios/42/Salvador-Edward-Luria.html “He was especially interested in how X-ray radiation affects bacteriophages by causing mutations”… Luria was a close colleague of physicist-turned-biologist Max Delbruck; together they created the ‘phage’ group at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on Long Island, NY, which was absorbed by Brookhaven National Lab. See Renato Dulbecco on the STAFF, below, for more about Luria.
Harold E. Green, 1978 Chairman of the March of Dimes
Gerald L. Parsky – (May2008)http://www.lajollalight.com/printer/article.asp?c=243817; assistant Secretary of the Treasury under William Simon (1974-77); fundraiser for George W. Bush. According to Family of Secrets author Russ Baker, Parsky was the “point man for weaving together the complex economic relationship with the Saudis..[and through] his grasp of U.S. tax laws enabled..Arab countries..to benefit from IRS tax exemptions for foreign investment in real estate.” [p292]
Howard H. Newman – vice-chair of Warburg Pincus LLC; vice-chair of Yale Alumni Fund
SALK INSTITUTE Fellows and Staff
Director- founder, 1962—, Jonas Salk
Director, Augustus B. Kinzel; president and scientific director of Union Carbide, operator of Oak Ridge National Lab http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE2D8103EF93AA15753C1A961948260; ”During World War II he held key advisory posts for ordnance, and led the metals branch of the Technical Industrial Intelligence Committee in Europe. After the war, he served on theDefense Science Board and the Naval Research Advisory Committee, and as consultant to the Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Argonne, and Brookhaven National Laboratories, and the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus_Braun_Kinzel
Salk Director,1970-1988 Frederic de Hoffmann – the ‘real’ father of the H-bomb, Edward Teller’s assistant at Los Alamos; founded General Atomics; died of AIDS; obituary http://www.nytimes.com/1989/10/07/obituaries/frederic-de-hoffmann-65-dies-physicist-and-salk-institute-chief.html?scp=1&sq=Frederic%20de%20Hoffman%20obituary%20Salk%20Institute&st=cse
Executive Vice-president (1968-2004) Del Glanz
General Manager, Charles S. Wilson
General Manager, William Glazier
Seymour Benzer – founding Fellow; war project physicist; obit>http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/08/science/08benzer.html?ex=1354770000&en=56e40dce7ae875da&ei=5124&partner=permalink&exprod=permalink
Matt Meselson – founding Fellow; geneticist at Caltech http://www.mblwhoilibrary.org/exhibits/science_is_we/cards/matt_meselson.html; worked with the ‘phage’ group of Max Delbruck http://www.dnaftb.org/dnaftb/20/gallery/index.html; Meselson “dscovered the enzymatic basis of host DNA protection, where the cell recognizes its own DNA by adding methyl groups to it. Meselson also discovered the process of DNA mismatch repair, which allows cells to fix mistakes in DNA.” http://www.sandoz.sk/home.php?id=90&category=4&subsid=165&12_id=167&lang=en
In 1992-93, Meselson investigated the 1979 Soviet anthrax biowarfare release along with a small team of scientists that included his wife Jeanne Guillemin.
Theodore T. Puck – founding Fellow; ” geneticist who devised an efficient method for growing colonies of human cells that he used in developing early and important tests for cell damage from radiation, and later for studying the genetic causes of cancers, died Nov. 6 at a hospital in Denver. He was 89…In 1957, he suggested that earlier studies of radiation safety, based on research involving fruit flies and other subjects, had underestimated the dangers to humans.” http://www.sivb.org/InVitroReport/39-4/puck.htm
Puck was growing poliovirus on human cancer cells, called ‘HeLa’ after the patient Henrietta Lacks who died of cervical cancer in 1951. [see page Immortal Cancer]
Francis Crick – 1962 Nobel Prize winner, shared with James Watson (Cold Spring Harbor Lab) and Maurice Wilkins for discovering the structure of DNA http://www.answers.com/topic/francis-crick . Interview with NYTimes, http://www.nytimes.com/2004/04/13/science/scientists-work-francis-crick-christof-koch-after-double-helix-unraveling.html
Crick is considered one of the foremost eugenicists of modern times; a believer in “panspermia” that life on earth was seeded from space.
Renato Dulbecco – founding Fellow, Salk Institute president after deHoffman’s death; physicist; emigrated from Italy with physicist Rita Levi-Montalcini; friend and coworker with Max Delbruck and Salvador Luria; Nobel Prize in 1975 shared with David Baltimore and Howard Temin; participant in the Human Genome Project. http://www.answers.com/topic/renato-dulbecco Paul Berg, who worked at Salk with Dulbecco and (in Copenhagen) with Herman Kalckar, created the first recombinant DNA molecule in 1972 working with SV40 monkey virus http://polioforever.wordpress.com/sv40-monkey-virus/; Dulbecco’s closest associate at Salk was Marguerite Vogt, German emigre and polio expert who spent the latter part of WWII (1943) in laboratory work near Hechingen in the Black Forest where Werner Heisenberg was leading the so-called German Atomic Bomb program.
Herman Kalckar – founding Fellow; earned MD in 1933 from Copenhagen University; younger brother, Fritz Kalckar, was a physics protege of Niels Bohr; obit>http://www.nytimes.com/1991/05/22/obituaries/herman-kalckar-83-metabolism-authority.html?pagewanted=1 Kalckar specialized in cellular respiration; Rockefeller grantee at Caltech in 1939 http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/biomems/hkalckar.html
Edwin S. Lennox – founding Fellow; physicist, Los Alamos, NM; wartime staff of the Manhattan Project http://www.lanl.gov/history/wartime/staff_l-n.shtml
Leslie E. Orgel,b.1927, London; chemistry PhD from Oxford in 1951; joined the Salk in 1964, additionally a professor at UCSD; director of the Chemical Evolution Laboratory. Orgel was “one of five principal investigators in the NASA-sponsored NSCORT program in exobiology.” Orgel attended the First Soviet American Conference on Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence, September 5-11, 1971. http://orpheus.ucsd.edu/speccoll/testing/html/mss0176a.html
Jacques Lucien Monod – 1965 Nobel http://www.answers.com/topic/jacques-monod; “Lwoff, Andre Michel (1902-1994), French microbiologist and winner of the 1965 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine, which he shared with fellow countrymen Jacques Lucien Monod and François Jacob. The three men, all researchers at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, were recognized for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis.” www.fjcollazo.com/fjc_publishings/documents/pasteurrpt.htm
Garth L. Nicolson – 1970-1976 [under DeHoffman] Cancer Council Laboratory; Director of Electron Microscopy; Chairman of the Department of Cancer Biology [curriculum vitae: http://www.drferre.com/pdfs/drnicholson.pdf ] Nicolson has been accused of co-creating HIV/AIDS during this timeframe with the Salk Inst. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OeLtwrJdo0s
David Baltimore - ”The research of Baltimore, Temin, and Renato Dulbecco helped illuminate the role of viruses in cancer; the three men shared a Nobel Prize in 1975.”… ”In 1990 Baltimore was appointed president of Rockefeller University; it was not to prove a fruitful or happy time. Many staff opposed the appointment and Baltimore became involved in a bitter controversy. It had been claimed that a paper co-authored by Baltimore and published in 1986 in Cell was based on falsified data. Although Baltimore withdrew his name from the paper, the public controversy persisted in Congressional hearings and the correspondence columns of Nature. Baltimore resigned the presidency in 1992 and returned to MIT in 1994 as professor of molecular biology.”http://www.answers.com/topic/david-baltimore
James C. Kennedy
Edward Klima – http://lcn.salk.edu/team_ek.html
Roger Guillemin; French-born (b.1924) Guillemin joined the Salk in 1970 to establish a laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, specializing in reproductive hormones for novel methods of birth control and brain hormone research; winner of a Nobel Prize in 1977 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1977/guillemin-autobio.html
Inder M. Verma – http://www.salk.edu/faculty/verma.html ; PhD from the Weizmann Institute, Rehovot; “one of the world’s leading authorities on the development of viruses for gene therapy vectors. Dr. Verma uses genetically engineered viruses to insert new genes into cells that can then be returned to the body” … “Gene therapy” is associated with causing cancer http://www.salk.edu/insidesalk/pdf/InsideSalk_200607.pdf “Salk Institute researchers, led by Inder Verma…discovered that a healthy copy, which replaces the defective gene, can itself promote cancer development. Their findings appeared in the April 27  issue of ‘Nature’….’We were surprised by the strength of the association between IL2RG gene therapy and…lymphoma…in the manner it is currently being done puts patients at increased risk for developing cancer”.
In October 2011, Verma was appointed editor-in-chief of the PNAS journal (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. http://www.nasonline.org/news-and-multimedia/2011_10_19_pnas_editor-in-chief.html
Robert A. Weinberg – “Born in Pittsburgh in 1942, Dr. Weinberg received his B.S. (1964) and Ph.D. (1969) degrees in Biology from MIT. He did postdoctoral research at the Weizmann Institute in Rehovoth, Israel and the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California, and then returned to MIT in 1972. In 1982, he was appointed Professor of Biology at MIT and also became one of the five founding Members of the Whitehead Institute. He has been an American Cancer Society Research Professor at Whitehead and MIT since 1985. http://commencement.tufts.edu/?pid=125
Fred Gage — ”[I]n the late 1990s, work at the Salk Institute, in the laboratory of Fred Gage,..another of StemCell’s cofounders,..electrified the field of neuroscience when they reported the existence of adult neural progenitor cells in the mammalian brain. Gage deliberately shies away from the term stem cell to describe these adult cells, because he’s still not sure what they are. But they can be recovered from the brain tissue of rats, for example, and possess the capacity to differentiate into either of the two main neural cells, neurons and glial cells… [p238] Gage’s group has shown that neural progenitor cells, when transplanted into an adult nervous system, migrate to the zone in the brain where new neurological cells are formed, and will also migrate to areas of injury…’Not only are new cells born, but they undergo synaptogenesis,’ Gage said..” [Merchants of Immortality, by Stephen S. Hall]
Lei Wang – “Our laboratory is interested in developing new strategies for molecular evolution..to study cellular functions and to generate new biological activities.” http://www.salk.edu/faculty/wang.html; articial life creation with “new” synthetic amino acids
 “By exposing..unnatural bacteria to the sort of conditions believed to have prevailed on the early earth..it might be possible to observe whether bacteria with 21, 22, or even more [artificial] amino acids might win out over those with the standard complement… Back in the present, the next order of business is to apply the research to mammals. Dr. Wang says that a certain strain of monkey cells has shown a promising tendency to incorporate unnatural amino acids. Within a year, he thinks, the group should have made mammalian cells equipped with 21 amino acids.” http://www.economist.com/node/987697?story_id=987697
Waitt Advanced Biophotonics Center Core Facility: Bjorn Lillemeier, PhD (Stanford), Axel Nimmerjahn, PhD (Stanford) and director James Fitzpatrick (Carnegie Mellon)
May 2011 – $5.5 million to “A multi-institutional team headed by Ursula Bellugi..director of the Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience..”http://newswise.com/articles/nih-awards-salk-institute-5-5-million-grant-to-study-williams-syndrome?ret=/articles/list&category=latest&page=1&search%5Bstatus%5D=3&search%5Bsort%5D=date+desc&search%5Bhas_multimedia%5D=
The SCIENCE at SALK
The NIPS Foundation; Neural Information Processing Systems https://nips.cc/
Crick-Jacobs Center http://crick-jacobs.salk.edu/
In 1986, the Salk Institute hosted The Nucleation Workshop, March 27-30, that “brought together a number of savants from all over the world to discuss aspects of human evolution.” [Salk Papers]
[current] “A collaboration between researchers at the salk institute for Biological Studies and the University of California at Los Angeles captured the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana – the “laboratory rat” of the plant world – in one big sweep. In a single experiment we recapitulated 20 years worth of anecdotal findings and then some,” says senior author Joseph Ecker, Ph.D., a professor in the salk institute‘s Plant Biology Laboratory. “Previously, only a hand full of plant genes were known to be regulated by methylation. In addition to those, we found hundreds of others. These technological innovations, pioneered by Ecker’s team and that of Steve Jacobsen, Ph.D., a Howard Hughes Medical institute investigator at UCLA, should have broad impact on the analysis of the human genome, stem cell biology and therapeutic cloning. Their findings will appear in a forthcoming issue of Cell.” http://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-news/In-a-technical-tour-de-force–Salk-scientists-take-a-global-view-of-the-epigenome-2983-1/
COLD SPRING HARBOR LAB, Brookhaven National Lab; Salk research partners
While Jonas Salk put his IPV into first testing trials: “It was with the 1953 meeting that the ‘golden age’ of Cold Spring Harbor Symposium began… The Symposia volumes for these genetics meetings served as primary sources of data in the years when Nature and Science were the only journals publishing in this area… the 1953 Symposium..has taken on a mythic quality… The list of participants reads like an honor roll of experimental virology” http://symposium.cshlp.org/site/misc/topic18.xhtml
1967 Symposia http://library.cshl.edu/symposia/1967/participants.html
[1968, Cold Spring symposium] “Renato Dulbecco described his research on what happened to the DNA genomes of polyoma and SV40 tumor viruses after they have infected a cell. He showed that the viral DNAs were integrated into the host cell genome. This work foreshadowed research that was to become central to the efforts of Cold Spring Harbor Labratory through the 1970s and 1980s.” [studies in genetic recombination and transgenics] http://symposium.cshlp.org/site/misc/topic33.xhtml
Welcome to the Neighborhood
La Jolla, CA – BIOTECH
____Hollis-Eden Pharmaceuticals http://www.holliseden.com/content/?page_id=482
http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=113795&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=601663&highlight= Hollis-Eden is spending millions to develop its ‘radioprotection’ drug candidate NEUMUNE …”Hollis-Eden is collaborating in its radiation protection program with The Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine and the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI), an agency within the U.S. Department of Defense specializing in research on and development of countermeasures to radiation injury.”
…”Also in radiation and chemotherapy protection, Hollis-Eden has begun profiling for near-term development a series of compounds that have the potential to protect against DNA mutations believed to be an underlying cause of the increased incidence of cancer that has been demonstrated as a late effect of radiation injury and is also associated with secondary cancers following chemotherapy. The lead compound in the series being developed for radiation protection is PHOSPHONOL(TM), which, like NEUMUNE, may be eligible for approval under the FDA’s new animal efficacy rule in this indication. Hollis-Eden obtained the rights to this series of compounds in the first quarter of 2004 through the acquisition of Congressional Pharmaceutical Corporation.”
http://www.holliseden.com/content/?page_id=310 Jerome Hauer, a leading figure in the events of September 11, is a director of Hollis-Eden Pharmaceuticals.
http://www.holliseden.com/content/?page_id=106 Dwight Stickney directed radiation research for Scripps and handed out the Radiation Study research grants for the NIH. Stickney also held positions with the CDC and Burroughs Wellcome (today’s GlaxoSmithKline http://citizen2009.wordpress.com/glaxosmithkline/)
____Scripps Institute , La Jolla CA and Jupiter FL, affiliate hospital and clinic network
http://www.scripps.edu/intro/history.html The Scripps Research Institute, established in 1946 from the pre-existing Scripps Metabolic Clinic (1924); “In 1961 the institution recruited pioneering immunologist Frank Dixon and four of his colleagues from the University of Pittsburgh [location of Jonas Salk's lab and dept.chief William McD. Hammon, from a medical school founded by the Scaife-Mellon family]..to establish a Department of Experimental Pathology in La Jolla”…”In 1977 the multiple research programs..were formally drawn together into the Research Institute of Scripps Clinic”…”The Department of Neurobiology was established at the Institute in 1992″…”In late 2003, The Scripps Research Institute took a dramatic step in announcing the establishment of a major science center in Palm Beach County Florida”…”Months of intensive discussions with Florida Governor Jeb Bush..culminated in the large scale agreement between Scripps Research and the State of Florida”..
____Burnham Institute http://www.burnham.org/
“In May 2008, California announced that it would provide 270 million US dollars for funding CIRM, a joint effort between Salk Institute, UCSD, Burnham Institute and TSRI [The Scripps Research Institute].” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California_Institute_for_Regenerative_Medicine
Salk Science NEWS
April 7, 2012; “Salk Scientists Redraw the Blueprint of the Body’s Biological Clock” — .. “Now we want to find ways of leveraging this mechanism to fix a person’s metabolic rhythms when they are disrupted by travel, shift work or sleep disorders.” http://www.healthcanal.com/medical-breakthroughs/28293-Salk-scientists-redraw-the-blueprint-the-bodys-biological-clock.html