Through the 19th century Victorian era, the field of neurology blossomed into multi-faceted disciplines based on anatomy (form) and physiology (function) and gave rise to schools of psychiatry and psychology as well as surgery and pharmacology. By the end of the century, epidemiology and immunology were recognized as integral to ‘nervous and mental’ diseases. The field was largely divided in two as it developed: the physiologic versus the psychologic. Freud, who rejected the ‘behavioral’ thesis of organic disease, was later to come around to it near the end of his life. Below are some of the best known pioneers of neurology.
Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842)
Native of Edinburgh, Scotland who became a renowned anatomist; authored ‘The Nervous System of the Human Body’ in 1830. Bell investigated the infantile paralysis outbreak on the remote South Atlantic island of St. Helena, site of Napoleon Bonaparte’s exile.
Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893)
perhaps the most celebrated neuropathologist; defined ’Charcot’s Disease’ [ALS or Lou Gehrig's in the US]and other syndromes named by Charcot
. Charcot was the first to describe Multiple Sclerosis. He gained notoriety for his occult interests and use of ‘mesmerism’ as a therapy for hysteria, which evolved into a more legitimized use of hypnosis. Paris became a world center for neurology study in due measure to the influence of Charcot.
Theodor Meynert (1833-1892)
, Chair of psychiatry for the University of Vienna; both Sigmund Freud and Bernard Sachs were students under Meynert (Freud rejected anatomical psychiatry)
Samuel Goldflam (1852-19320
Joseph Babinski (1857-1932)
; “Babinski’s sign” is demonstrated by video
Augustus Waller (1856-1922)
William Hirsch – cited in ‘The Polio Paradox’ by Richard Bruno for publishing the earliest compendium on the ‘late-effects’ of polio; one of Hirsch’s more famous works was the 1896 publication of “Genius and Degeneration”
He debated Max Nordau over the physiological basis of degeneration and the ‘degenerate’ and criminal nature of mankind. An example is found here :
on the Victorian view of laughter
Moses Allen Starr (1854-1932)
Charles Loomis Dana (1852-1935) ..obit
Bernard Sachs (1858- ), Mt. Sinai NYC
, brother of Samuel Sachs, co-founder of Goldman Sachs; graduated from Harvard in 1878; studied neurology in Berlin (under Rudolph Virchow) andVienna, degree in 1882; studied under Jean-Martin Charcot in Paris; studied under Meynert along with Sigmund Freud; returned to NYC in 1884 to work with Isaac Adler; discovered Tay-Sachs disease; published the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (1886-1911);chief of the first neurology ward (1900) at Mount Sinai Hospital. >>see The Opal Project
timeline entry : “1905 Bernard Sachs, author of A Treatise on the Nervous Diseases of Children recommends that masturbation in children be treated by cautery to the spine and to the genitals. Cauterize is to burn, sear or destroy tissue.”
Robert Kienbock (1871-1953) ‘Kienbock’s Disease’
Charles Karsner Mills (1845-1931)U Penn;..his books
William Gibson Spiller (1863-1940); U Penn;
History of Neurology
“Founding years of clinical neurology in Berlin until 1933″
“Early Presidents of the ANA”
The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, “founded 1874, it is the world’s oldest independent scientific monthly in the field of human behavior” –wikipedia.
“Philosophical” Literature (rare books)