Polioforever's Blog

Nelson A. Rockefeller


Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller, 1908-1979

“When he was a boy Nelson’s mother had counseled him to seek out the advice of his ‘superiors’…From his school days onward he..heeded her words… He also had his father’s example. Junior was a master at assembling a brain trust, pulling into his orbit such diverse wise men as Mackenzie King, Abraham Flexner, and Raymond Fosdick. But the..less praiseworthy side to this reliance on others was a princely tendency..to have surrogates handle his dirty work.”
“Nothing stands in Rockefeller’s way… he always gets what he wants” –Sen. Jacob Javits
“If he wanted to spend money, money was no object” –Louis Lefkowitz, NAR’s Atty General and four-time running mate
Rockefeller’s first official foray into the field of health after his 1930 graduation from Dartmouth was a twenty-year directorship on the Westchester County [NY] Board of Health, 1933-1953 :
   “The issues of the day fascinated [Nelson], just as they had fascinated Junior, who had long shown a reformist zeal in such matters as prostitution, public health, and population control…[p116]
   “Late in 1932 Nelson journeyed to Port Chester, not far from the Rockefeller family seat at Pocantico Hills, to meet with Westchester County Republican chairman W.L. Ward. “Boss” Ward had an iron grip on public jobs in the county…his astonishment must have been considerable when he found a young Rockefeller at his doorstep beseeching him for a position… Ward suggested an appointment to the Westchester County Board of Health… After [Nelson's] first meeting, in February 1933..he made it clear that his appointment would not bring the county a windfall… He was fascinated by the range of issues: in his first year..the board tackled the problem of raw milk (barring its sale) and expanded the county’s prenatal and venereal disease clinics… He continued to serve on the board, on and off, until 1953. But of far more immediate moment was the precedent the position set. For the first time, a Rockefeller had stepped into the spotlight of public service… His prime focus, however, remained Rockefeller Center…Nelson enthusiastically sought to insert himself in anything and everything affecting the Center.” [p117, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller, 1996, Cary Reich]
>>>polioforever: During WWII, the Deputy Commissioner of Health for Westchester County NY was Alexander Langmuir (1910-1993), famed for founding the Epidemic Intelligence Service of the CDC in 1951, who was also the nephew of Nobel scientist Irving Langmuir [see the Fallout page]. In 1970 Dr. Langmuir married Dr. Leona Baumgartner, first woman Health Commissioner of New York City http://www.nytimes.com/1991/01/17/obituaries/dr-leona-baumgartner-88-dies-led-new-york-health-department.html
Creole Petroleum Company
…”faced with a decision of how to invest the [inheritence] windfall that had come his way from the 1934 trust, Nelson chose to put part of into the stock of Creole Petroleum, the Venezuelan subsidiary of Standard Oil of New Jersey. It was a shrewd investment: the prolific oil fields of Lake Maracaibo had turned Venezuela into the world’s second-biggest oil producer (after the United States), and the greatest part of that production was controlled by Creole… He arranged his election to the Creole board of directors… [In] the spring of 1937, with his grip on the Center secure, he [traveled]..via chartered aircraft, from Venezuela to Brazil, then on to Argentina and across the Andes to Chile and Peru, on up the west coast to the Panama Canal…the journey would take almost two months [p167]… Within a year..Venezuela doubled its oil royalty and served notice on the oil companies..that ‘the old days were over’. With the [threat]of expropriation hovering over the company, Linam and Proudfit (who would soon become Creole president) set in motion changes that would, in time, transform Creole’s image…[p169]    “The [Venezuelan president Cardenas] made it plain that..[e]xpropriation..would restore the nation’s self-respect..even when Nelson raised the specter of ‘very serious’ repercussions, including intervention by the U.S. government…[but finally]Nelson gave up. His encounter with Cardenas underscored..that in Latin America ‘dignity’ was a quality not just of individuals but of nations. No outsider could hope to get anywhere..without paying homage to this essential attribute… Nelson understood this would be amply demonstrated in the years ahead… The President had tried to interest foreign investors in building a hotel… Such a project would help Caracas. [p170]
   “Nelson..set the wheels in motion.. determined to bring in other investors. He approached all the big oil companies doing business in Venezuela… The biggest individual investors, inevitably, were Nelson and his loyal brother Laurance… David also wanted to join the venture… The Hotel Avila, as it would be known, was destined to be the talk of Caracas. [p171-172, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
“Nelson’s campaign to make his mark in Washington had begun in earnest..in the spring of 1938. That was when Anna Rosenberg entered his life. She had been an unofficial member of Roosevelt’s brain trust since his days as governor of New York, and she enjoyed an enviable access..better, in fact, than..most of Roosevelt’s cabinet. Now..she was Nelson Rockefeller’s paid adviser. And the most prized aspect..was her ability to pick up the phone and get through to FDR.” [p175, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
    Anna Rosenberg, Asst. Sec.of Defense 1950-1953 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anna_M._Rosenberg; “Rosenberg worked hard to bring about the effective implementation of the National Security Act… In 1962, the Rosenbergs divorced and then she married Paul G. Hoffman, the first administrator of the Marshall Plan and a top United Nations official.” http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/mep/displaydoc.cfm?docid=erpn-annros
“Rockefeller had never forgotten the debt he owed to Anna Rosenberg…At the end of the war[he told Bill Benton] ‘..everything I’ve amounted to here in Washington, everything I feel I’ve achieved..I owe to Anna Rosenberg.”…Rosenberg liked to tell the story of one visit to Pocantico when, at Nelson’s behest, she smuggled six bottles of booze so that Nelson and his brothers could circumvent Junior’s  strict ban on alcohol…Rosenberg’s overbearing manner– punctuated by jangling bracelets that announced her presence– was a constant irritant to others in Rockefeller’s inner circle.” [p400-401, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
   “Anna Rosenberg, whose maiden name was Lederer, was born in Budapest and came to the United States at an early age… [S]he became one of the foremost public relations counselors in the country…[and] represented Marshall Field, the Rockefeller brothers, Macy’s [Strauss family] and John Hay (‘Jock’) Whitney… [S]he did government work as well, on the NRA [Nat'l Recovery Admin.], the Social Security Board, and the Office of Defense, Health and Welfare…” Her closest friends were Albert D. and Mary Lasker, who took control of the American Cancer Society in 1945 and used their influence to draft federal health policy. http://www.smokershistory.com/Rosenbrg.htm
[By 1939] “Pockets of pro-Nazi sentiment could already be found throughout the hemisphere. The most blatant support was in Argentina, where Army and nationalist factions were openly pro-Hitler. But the Argentinians were hardly alone… Suddenly, Latin America moved to the forefront of American strategic thinking… Secret talks were initiated with the Latin American military… An economic war worried Roosevelt and his advisers as much as a military one… Of more immediate concern was the fragility of South American economies; with their traditional European export markets cut off by the hostilities, many of those economies were hanging by a thread… All at once, there was a premium on fresh ideas about inter-American relations. Now, in June 1940, Harry Hopkins was..eager to hear what Nelson Rockefeller had to say..[and] asked Rockefeller and [Beardsley] Ruml to put their thoughts in a memo. Getting together with The Group, they hammered out a..draft… Point by point, Rockefeller laid out his program. The United States should undertake emergency measures to buy up surplus Latin American commodities. Tariffs should be reduced or..eliminated…External debts should be refinanced…U.S. diplomatic presence..should be substantially increased.  A ‘vigorous program’ of cultural, educational, and scientific exchange should be initiated… It was high time, [Hopkins] said, that the administration pulled the whole thing together. Rockefeller’s memo was exactly the tool he needed… In the meantime, Hopkins added, perhaps Rockefeller could prepare a list of ..names for his private sector advisory committee.
   “On Monday, June 17, the four cabinet members –Cordell Hull of State, Henry Wallace of Agriculture, Henry Morganthau of Treasury, and Hopkins– gathered…to comply with the President’s request…[which] was precisely what Rockefeller had suggested in his memo… The next day, the President formally proposed the inter-American cartel.” [pp179-180, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
“Finally, at the end of June, Roosevelt made it known he was naming a special assistant to grapple with the government’s entire Latin American program. This assistant was a wealthy New Yorker with impeccable ties to the business world, a man of energy and ideas who was eager to bring his talents to Washington. His name was James Forrestal. A wily self-made dynamo [who] had risen to the pinnacle of Wall Street as president of Dillon, Read & Co… Latin America was a subject [Forrestal] knew and cared little about. What fascinated him were issues of military strategy and intelligence… he launched an all-out effort to construct airstrips throughout South America, enlisting Pan American Airways as a U.S. government front… Forrestal..had a far shrewder command of the situation than Rockefeller perceived. He had brought with him to Washington his most trusted aide at Dillon, Read, Paul Nitze, and –unbeknownst to Rockefeller– Nitze was in the process of studying the government’s whole Latin American policy-making apparatus… Working with another young Roosevelt adviser, James Rowe, Nitze drew up the outline of a new position: Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs. ” [p181-182, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
    James Forrestal               Nitze
 “FDR, on the recommendation of an adviser (who later received a loan from Nelson Rockefeller), named Nelson in 1940 to head the new agency which became known as the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (CIAA) or simply as the Rockefeller Office. Before America even entered the second world war in 1941, Nelson was actively recruiting the elites of Latin America. According to a former staff member of the Rockefeller Office, “almost all our efforts were directed into organizing the pro-Western elites of Venezuela and Brazil into a private network of influence”…
   “To gain control over the media of Latin America during the War, Rockefeller obtained a ruling from the U.S. Treasury Department which exempted the cost of advertisements placed by American corporations that were cooperating with the Rockefeller Office from taxation. This tax-exempt advertising eventually constituted more than 40 per cent. of all radio and newspaper revenues in Latin America. By selectively directing this advertising towards newspapers and radio stations that accepted guidance from his office and simultaneously denying it to media which he deemed uncooperative or pro-Nazi he skillfully managed to gain economic leverage over the major sources of news throughout South America…
  “All the Rockefeller Office’s programs were divided into two categories: economic warfare” and “psychological warfare.” Nelson explained to a Senate committee at the time: “We consider it an information program, the objectives to be to explain what is going on in a military way.” A battle plan was thus drawn up for the press campaign. George Gallup..and a group of prominent social scientists quietly conducted systematic surveys of’ public opinion in Brazil…[The] Rockefeller Office arranged for a “research division” to employ clandestine “observers” from the Export Bureau of the American Association of Advertising Agencies in Latin America. The advertising men who served as “observers” supplied the Rockefeller Office with data concerning the editorial policy, personal opinions of the owners and editors of the newspapers. Dossiers could thus be systematically organized about the opinions and operations of the major organs of public opinion in Latin America.” http://edwardjayepstein.com/rockefellers/chap5.htm
Jock Whitney
“Of all the coordinator’s cultural ventures, none could rival the potential impact of the agency’s foray into the motion picture business… Only movies could deliver the message of inter-American brotherhood to the masses. In tapping Jock Whitney to head his motion picture division, Rockefeller had chosen well: Whitney’s monumental success with Gone With the Wind earned him considerable Hollywood influence… Whitney..displayed uncommon assertiveness in his new role.” [p215]
   “They had come to know one another on the board of the Museum of Modern Art [MOMA], where Whitney oversaw the development of the vaunted film library. Whitney had already gained a reputation as one of the film industry’s most discerning and successful financiers.”[p190] ….In October 1951..The diffident Whitney, in the years since the war had quietly emerged as a significant behind-the-scenes player in New York State Republican politics, fostering GOP progressivism by bankrolling..young Jacob Javits.” [p493]
   When Rockefeller sought political funding for his own campaigns “the biggest contributors of all were Jock Whitney and his wife.. and Whitney’s sister and [husband], Mr. and Mrs. Charles Shipman Payson..” [p737, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
>>>Jock Whitney’s ‘J.H.Whitney & Co.’business partner, Benno Schmidt, CEO and Chairman of Freeport Sulpher (today’s Freeport-McMoRan,) is known as the architect of the National Cancer program under Nixon. Jock’s first cousin, Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney (‘Sonny’) was the cofounder of Pan American Airlines (1927, with Yale buddy Juan Trippe) and the  first Assistant Secretary of the Air Force, created 1947, during its most active time dropping A-bombs in the Pacific –pilots were considered most at risk for radiation injury, hence the USAF command was deeply involved in secret human radiation experiments. This USAF document describes the founders’ general program  http://www.disam.dsca.mil/pubs/Vol%2028_1/McCarthy.pdf , health matters were supervised under the AFEB; The Whitneys have (at the least) indirect connections to the characters in “Dr. Mary’s Monkey” http://polioforever.wordpress.com/dr-marys-monkey/
Pan Am started as a mail carrier between Florida and Havana http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pan_American_World_Airways
 Sarnoff (RCA, NBC and RKO Pictures) and Paley (CBS)
“..Rockefeller, of course, was not without connections in the radio business ..[with] his long-standing Rockefeller Center links with NBC boss David
Sarnoff. And..he had come to know CBS chief William S. Paley..Paley was especially susceptible to the coordinator’s entreaties.” [p221]
  Sarnoff“Ten years older than Paley, Sarnoff had also come from a Russian-Jewish background. But unlike Paley, he was born in the mother country..near Minsk… From the age of four he was drilled in the Old Testament and the Talmud by his rabbinical elders, from dawn to dusk, six days a week. [Sarnoff] later said that after four years of having to memorize two thousand words a day, he could not bring himself to become the rabbi his family wanted him to be… By 1906 he joined the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company where he started as an office boy and worked his way up… He achieved his first fame at age twenty-one on the night of April 14, 1912. As manager of the wireless station in the Wanamaker department store, he was one of several people along the East Coast in touch with the sinking luxury liner Titanic. It was the beginning of a legend –embellished by Sarnoff himself– that cast him as the sole link to the disaster for seventy-two hours.” [p55, In All His Glory, the Life and Times of William S. Paley, Sally Bedell Smith]
    Paley“Paley had an insatiable appetite for power. But he was not outwardly dynamic… Paley was often a shadow presence..letting others manage CBS for long stretches of time.” [p15] “CBS shaped and reflected American society to a greater degree than its rivals.. through the voice of newsman Edward R. Murrow… It instructed us about the abuse of power by… In the early days..[he] emphasized news shows… Later, he made a calculated choice to concentrate on entertainment programs that would appeal to a mass audience… Mass audiences meant more– more viewers and more money and more power.” [p16] “Paley had a prodigious appetite for pleasure of all kinds.” [p17] ” ‘He was the son of a little man, a limited man. He had to wonder, Was I lucky or brilliant?’ said Richard Salant, a former president of CBS News. To smother his insecurities, Paley resorted to tranquilizers and sleeping pills, taking everything from Miltown and Seconal to Ativan and Halcion. Indeed, Paley had always been a hopeless hypochondriac… ambivalent about his Jewishness, courting socially prominent WASPs…”[p19] ..”his second wife, Barbara Cushing Mortimer.. was the daughter of a famous brain surgeon. One of her sisters had married Jock Whitney… Her other sister married Vincent Astor..” [p21, In All His Glory]
Some historical background of radio and television is given here, involving the creation of RCA (1919) by General Electric and the suppression of television inventor Philo Farnsworth. RCA “was created by GE in October 1919 to acquire American Marconi..the American branch of British Marconi… Through David Sarnoff, RCA began amassing key patents on parts related to radio and television. Sarnoff sold and swapped stock in RCA for patents and created a so-called ‘patent pool’,which later would be ivestigated as an illegal monopoly [p14, link]…GE remained the principal shareholder of RCA until 1932 when it divested RCA stock after it was found to be a monopoly… In 1920, RCA gave Westinghouse 20% of RCA stock to obtain exclusive rights to [its] patents… In 1929, RCA bought Victor Talking Machines Company…” [p15]http://www.timelinetheatre.com/farnsworth_invention/FarnsworthInvention_StudyGuide.pdf; Homage to Vladimir Zworykin, NBC’s inventor http://framemaster.tripod.com/oldindex.html;
“RKO was conceived in 1927 when RCA president David Sarnoff approached Joe Kennedy, who owned Film Booking Office (FBO) of America…Sarnoff wanted an outlet for the RCA sound systems… RKO started production in the FBO studios with former FBO vice-president Joseph L. Schnitzer over production and distribution and William LeBaron as head of production.”  http://www.learnaboutmovieposters.com/NewSite/INDEX/COUNTRIES/US/HISTORY/STUDIOS/RKO/RKO.asp
“The servicios, those cooperative arrangements between Rockefeller’s health institute and the host countries, existed entirely outside the normal diplomatic framework… Rockefeller’s coordination committees were now established in sixty-seven cities throughout Latin America…’The Committees,’ [John] McClintock reported,’have been active..with the operation of the blacklist..and the checking of subversive activity…[T]he benevolence was strictly of the Big Brother variety..’” [p250-251, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
polioforever>>> an example of a ‘servicio’ is the Yellow Fever Research Service, co-administered with Brazil’s Ministry of Public Health. Hilary Koprowski was put to work at this institute c.1939.
  Morris ‘Moe’ Berg
“To promote hemisphere unity through the great American pastime of baseball, Rockefeller sent former Chicago White Sox catcher Moe Berg on a goodwill bat-and-ball tour. Berg was not your average..ballplayer. An honors graduate of Princeton University and the Columbia University Law School, Berg was an accomplished linguist and philologist who spoke Spanish fluently… Berg sent reports to Rockefeller, marked ‘secret and confidential’, on Axis influence and activities; for the better part of two years he was [NAR's] personal spy. (Much of his intelligence dealt with conditions at U.S. bases in Latin Ameria, including graphic accounts of the GIs’ sexual escapades..). The ex-catcher liked the work so much that he moved on Europe as a secret agent for the Office of Strategic Services… His assignments [included] sniffing out the progress of Germany’s atomic bomb project.” [215, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
“On May 4 [1944], carrying a pistol in one pocket and two thousand dollars in OSS money in the other..Berg boarded a militry airplane at a field outside Washington D.C. for the flight that would take him [to Scotland and]..finally London… Exactly one month later, Rome was liberated..[and] Berg left for…Naples…[p47] According to [Gian Carlo] Wick, Heisenberg was probably an anti-Nazi but with ‘too deep a sense of patriotism not to work for his country’… Wick provided a not-too-precise update of Heisenberg’s whereabouts..[and] either could not or would not give Berg more details… Berg’s long journey had been a waste of time…[He went back to Chicago, but in June]..Berg returned to Rome…

   “By the fall of 1944..intelligence [was]..reasonably confident that Heisenberg was in Hechingen. On December 8, there was word from Bern that Heisenberg was going to give a lecture in Zurich, one in a series arranged by Paul Scherrer. As a result, Morris Berg arrived at the ETH lecture hall on December 18 carrying a gun. His assignment was to listen carefully to Heisenberg..and if he became convinced that the Germans were close to an atomic bomb, Berg was to shoot him while he was still in the auditorium. [p50]. The idea of depriving Heisenberg of his life or liberty was not new. In 1942 refugee scientists Hans Bethe and VictorWeisskopf had proposed kidnapping him, but [Leslie] Groves and [Robert] Furman did not [look] for the right man for the job until 1944… Bringing a gun into a lecture hall and shooting someone was considerably easier. And so, Berg sat..and listened as Heisenberg lectured on..S-matrix theory… Berg’s gun stayed in his pocket.Soon Berg had a second chance… But Hesienberg’s comments [at a dinner party] that the war was lost gave Berg..less of a motive to kill him, even if he had the means and a golden opportunity.” [p51, Spying on the Bomb, by Jeffrey T. Richelson]
polioforever>>> Richelson details the Alsos report from France, recieved a month prior, that Joliet-Curie told them the occupying German scientists who used his lab had no knowledge of making an atomic weapon.
   “Alsos had conclusive proof that the feared German program was actually, in Goudsmit’s words, ‘small-time stuff’. The program clearly had not moved beyond preliminary research, had not produced a chain eaction, and had not discovered an effective means of enriching uranium.” [p59]…[Ten] captured scientists were moved to an estate in the English countryside, Farm Hall, and…microphones would record the astonishment, even disbelief, of Heisenberg and others when they first learned in early August [1945] that the United States and Britain had succeeded in..build[ing] an atomic bomb.”[p61, Spying on the Bomb]
   Richelson introduces Moe Berg on page 38, writing that “While Paul Scherrer was not paid by the OSS, Morris ‘Moe’ Berg, codenamed Remus, did recieve a paycheck from General Donovan’s organization. He had joined on August 2, 1943, at age forty-one..after a year of working for the Coordinator of Inter-American affairs, Nelson Rockefeller… As an intelligence officer he was not easy to control, and his whereabouts would at times be a mystery to those paying paying his salary.”[p39] If Cary Reich’s timeframe on Berg is correct, the man was pulling a lot of double-shifts between Europe and Latin American bases at a time of utmost importance in A-bomb development.
>>>for more about A-bombs read http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2010/11/08/atomic-power-no-contest/
 [In 1946] “Rio de Janeiro in November..was stirred by..a visitor–Nelson Rockefeller was back..as a private citizen… Brazilians regarded him with almost mystical reverence… One by one, the country’s woes were presented to him… Rockefeller..offered not vague gestures of  encouragement, but solid promises of help. He undertook to obtain the vaccine needed to stem [a] hog cholera epidemic…he agreed to bankroll a fledgling company..producing a new, super-prolific strain of hybrid seed corn… He talked about setting up a national network of farm co-ops, about building a mammoth fertilizer plant at Santos, ..about importing 10,000 trucks from the United States [p406]…Rockefeller chose Brazil and Venezuela. Brazil was selected because of its vast untapped economic potential, because of its strategic value to the United States, and not least, because it was the country with which Rockefeller’s key Latin American operatives, Berent Friele and Kenneth Kadow, were most familiar… As for Venezuela, it had the advantage of Rockefeller’s longstanding interest and involvement dating back to his days on the Creole Petroleum board. More decisively, it had the foreign oil companies and their immense resources– resources that Rockefeller was eager to tap.” [p408 , The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
“The profusion of aides, advisers, and shadowy influences in Rockefeller’s office did not exactly make for a harmonious team. ‘You had to look over your shoulder all the time,’ says [Dartmouth classmate Bill] Alton. ‘There were people who knew how to cut your throat.’ …Rockefeller not only tolerated..rivalries– he probably cultivated them in the first place. It was a page out of the FDR textbook: keeping one’s deputies at loggerheads…Yet..Rockefeller also was influenced by the practices of his own father. Junior ..[was] always careful not to vest too much authority in any single aide… All the Rockefeller sons had learned this lesson..but none more so than Nelson… Instead, the lines of influence would run out in a dozen criss-crossing directons, and multiply into an impenetrable lattice..in the service of the web spinner at the center of it all.”
   “Hutch Robbins became one of Rockefeller’s key operatives in his prewar Venezuelan investment company, and it was then that Louise first caught Rockefeller’s eye… He offered her a job… She was an Auchincloss, brought up with lots of money and nothing to do… Her remarriage in 1947 to one of Laurance Rockefeller’s top aides, Allston Boyer, did not affect her dedication..in the slightest… everything, everything was secondary to her work for him.”[p402, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
Foreign Economic Administration, 1940-1947
“The FEA was headed by Nelson Rockefeller and supervised economic warfare, propaganda, and intelligence operations in Central and South America.” http://www.conservapedia.com/Office_of_Economic_Warfare
Point Four
International Development Advisory Board
Oscar M. Reubhausen
“Rockefeller had tried his best to stay on good terms with the Truman White House… But any program of the sort Rockefeller had in mind would have to be initiated by the State Department…” [427]
   “Point Four was in need of all the friends it could get. And..most eager..was Nelson Rockefeller… Using his position as chairman of the National Conference of Christians and Jews, Rockefeller asked to call on the President in connection with Brotherhood Week [Lewis L. Strauss, Kuhn Loeb partner and future AEC chief, was the leading director of the National Conference of Christians and Jews, http://polioforever.wordpress.com/lewis-l-strauss/] … Point Four..he claimed..[was] the most ‘provocative’ concept since the atomic bomb.”[p431]
   “Point One was ‘unfaltering support for the United Nations’. Point Two was support for world economic recovery, including continued backing of the Marshall Plan. Point Three was the ongoing effort to create a collective security alliance among the North Atlantic powers…[and] finally, there was Point Four:..’a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas.’ “[p430]
  “Point Four was signed into law on June 5, 1950… Rockefeller ..sought to identify himself even more closely with the program…[but] Truman was noncommital and suggested that Rockefeller take the idea up with Acheson… He was not looking for a government job:that was what Rockefeller told his White House contacts in early July [1950]..Bu two months later, all that had changed. On September 8, the President signed an Executive Order creating an International Development Advisory Board… The word came from Harriman that the job was his if he wanted it… He met with the President on the first of November… the day proved eventful [for Truman who] narrowly escaped assassination when two Puerto Rican nationals opened fire on his guards…[p450]
   “To fill the role of counsel to the board, Rockefeller turned to..Oscar M. Ruebhasen, a thirty-eight-year-old partner of Debevoise, Plimpton & McLean…[The] principal link was through David Rockefeller..[and] the long-standing friendship between their wives… Ruebhausen had earned his Washington spurs during the war working for lend-lease and then as chief counsel of the Office of Scientific Research and Development [OSRD, under Vannevar Bush], the agency charged with the initial development of the atomic bomb. His involvement with nuclear energy contnued after the war: he was now chairing the New York State Bar Association committee on atomic energy.
  “…[NAR had a] sizable professional staff at his command…But, on top of this staff, Rockefeller overlaid a whole other layer of ‘consultants’, individuals who were part of his extended network..[that] included Admiral Lewis Strauss, a longtime partner of the Kuhn Loeb investment banking firm and..member of the Atomic Energy Commission [later chief], who was now serving as a financial adviser to the Rockefeller brothers… In all, Rockefeller had thirty-one people..who were accomplished lawyers, bankers, economists, engineers and educators in their own right..[such as] Harvey Firestone..and New York labor union ally Jacob Potofsky. There was..Virginia State College president Robert Daniel, a former Surgeon General..[and John Savage] the chief designer of the Grand Coulee and Hoover dams.”[p452-453].
   “..November 16, two weeks after Truman had handed him the job, Rockefeller made it clear what he thought the key points of the report should be. The report..should aim at achieving ‘a dynamically expanding, interdependent world economy.’ It should emphasize the role of private enterprise…As Rockefeller put it, ‘The scope of the work is so great that the State Department must be relieved of the burden.’ ” [p454, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
“[NAR's] friend and counsel Oscar Ruebhausen..since World War II had been a fervent advocate of the peaceful uses of atomic energy. In 1954 Ruebhausen helped organize the Fund for Peaceful Economic Development (of which David Rockefeller was a director), a nonprofit corporation dedicated to fostering benign atomic uses. Among the projects he discussed with Rockefeller was the possibility of IBEC developing and promoting nuclear electric plants in Latin America.” [p566, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
Undersecretary of HEW
“Nelson Rockefeller was running the Health, Education and Welfare
Department, not Mrs. Hobby… She just sat back and let Nelson run the show.”
–George Meany
“After his election, a grateful Eisenhower, looking to add at least one woman to his all-male..circle, turned to Oveta Culp Hobby… he tapped her to head the sprawling, unwieldy Federal Security Agency –even though Hobby had virtually no experience with the complex issues with which the agency was grappling. All she could say, upon accepting the appointment, was that ‘I’m in favor of people having security and I hope I can help’ …In a cabinet larded with gray lawyers and paunchy businessmen, Oveta Hobby was a singular figure: a rare splash of color and chic…  ‘She was way over her head, said Cruikshank. ‘It was just too big a job for her, and too complex’… There was the awesome Soial Security system… the Public Health Service…National Cancer Institute…National Institutes of Health… the Office of Education… Food an Drug Administration… As capable as she was, nothing in Oveta Culp Hobby’s experience prepared her for all this… With the WACS, Hobby at least had a clear, unambiguous sense of her mission…  She reached out for a strong, potentially overpowering number two. One day in late May of 1953, Nelson Rockefeller..watched as his name was stenciled onto a parking place… the confirmation hearing on June 5 lasted all of 10 minutes… Six days later, in Hobby’s office, he was sworn in as Undersecretary of HEW… ‘[E]verybody knew who the Acting Secretary of HEW was,’ says Donna Mitchell.’If you wanted anything done, you went to Nelson.’ ” [p515-518, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
   At one of his first department meetings, Rockefeller proclaimed his special interest in healthcare…What was needed..was a task force..of insurance company executives from Blue Cross..and the like… [It] also included Rockefeller’s counsel and friend Oscar Ruebhausen… The plan..called not for federal health insurance, but for federal health reinsurance  [insuring the insurers]…by setting up a reinsurance fund that would compensate them for any ‘abnormal losses’” [p531, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
 Oveta Hobby, chief of the wartime WAACs, became Secretary of the (new) Dept. of  Health, Education and Welfare, formerly the Federal Security Agency (FSA).
   “One of the major events during her term on the cabinet was the announcement of the Salk vaccine to prevent polio. Many Americans in that era were terrified of the widespread summer polio epidemics, and the demand was immediate. To hold back the vaccine until it had been properly tested was to risk children’s lives… Furthermore, while Mrs. Hobby was at HEW, Congress authorized $182 million for a three-year expansion of the federal-state-local hospital building program and authorized $150 million to build more chronic-disease hospitals, nursing homes, diagnostic and treatment centers, and medical rehabilitation centers… In 1955 Governor Hobby was ill, and Mrs. Hobby thought she could no longer stay away from Houston. She resigned in July… Mrs. Hobby resumed her position with the Houston Post as president and editor. In 1956 she became chairman of the board of directors of the newly organized Bank of Texas and the first woman in its 113-year history to be a member of Mutual of New York’s board of trustees…” http://library.rice.edu/collections/WRC/digital-archive-information/online-exhilbits/oveta-culp-hobby-and-the-women-s-army-corps-exhibit/oveta-culp-hobby-biographical-sketch
Interview with Oscar Ewing, FSA Director 1947-1953 :  ..”national health insurance had been proposed by President Roosevelt in the very first social security bill introduced in Congress back in 1934. [174]. Later President Roosevelt dropped his support of national health insurance. I think he did this largely because he thought that including national health insurance in the bill might make it more difficult to get the social security program through Congress and that it would be better to take a step at a time, get what he could, and later try to get the more controversial parts of his program, such as national health insurance, adopted…
   “Well,the American Medical Association wanted to be the exclusive sovereign of medicine. They didn’t want the Government to have a thing to do with medicine. They opposed every bill that was introduced in Congress that even remotely would involve Government in medicine. They had a very powerful lobby… When I left the Federal Security Agency, the Government was giving the Public Health Service and other areas of medical research about a hundred million dollars a year.”
…[on national health insurance] “In the original draft of the bill, which has been prepared in the Federal Security Agency, largely under the immediate direction of Dr. Isadore Falk, there had been included a provision to the effect that if the price of drugs became excessive the Government could step in and fix prices. That was a perfect anathema to the Pharmaceutical manufacturers…
..Actually, I think the AMA would have lost its tax-free gift status…I know the pharmaceutical manufacturers withdrew their support…The pharmaceutical manufacturers then organized the Health Information Foundation. It was an organization to which they made contributions that previously had gone to the Physicians Committee.”
…”I think the first Wagner-Murray-Dingell bill to be introduced in Congress was in the latter part of May 1945. I understand that a little while afterwards Arthur Altmeyer, Wilbur Cohen and some others from the Agency went to the new President and urged him to consider backing the bill…but until the war with Japan was finally terminated he didn’t want anything to divert him from his concentration on that job. When the VJ Day came and a few months had passed President Truman sent a special message to Congress in November 1945 recommending legislation to provide for national health insurance…. But, with the end of the Truman administration also came the end of any really active pressures for national health insurance. Mrs. Hobby, who succeeded me as Federal Security Administrator, and later became the first Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare, she had proposed one or two different plans, none of which caught hold. The truth of the matter was that the doctors in the American Medical Association were highly and efficiently organized and could exert great pressure on Congress.” http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/ewing3.htm
Oscar R. Ewing [1889-1980] http://www.socialsecurity.gov/history/ewing.html; Ewing was corporate counsel for Alcoa aluminum, negotiating favorable wartime contracts http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,851453,00.html and during his lead at FSA in 1950, Ewing endorsed public water fluoridation.
Special Assistant to the President for Psychological Warfare
“When Rockefeller arrived, he took [C.D.] Jackson’s seat on the OCB. Working with the CIA was nothing new for him… at HEW he was aware that his department was used as a cover for some of the most sensitive programs, code-namedArtichoke and MK-Ultra… Reportedly, Rockefeller knew– and Hobby didn’t– that the CIA was funding experiments..through HEW… And so, in his first weeks on the job, the new special assistant sought to pull the CIA even more into his orbit.” [p559, The Life of Nelson Rockefeller; footnote-- "as good as [Nelson's] relations were with the CIA, his brother David’s were even better… in some instances [David] furnished a front– agreeing to finance a do-good foundation] ..”What was required to attain all this..was the creation of a ‘small, high-level group’ that would ‘aid in..planning in both overt and covert fields.’ This group would consist of the Undersecretary of State, the Deputy Secretary of Defense, and the director of the CIA– an its chairman..special assistant Nelson Rockefeller. The..power of this new Planning Coordination Group [PCG] would be considerable… Nelson Rockefeller had his coveted direct line into the clandestine workings of the CIA.” [p560]
Rockefeller’s predecessor: “Charles Douglas Jackson…became Managing Director of Time-Life International. In 1948 Frank Wisner, who worked with Jackson in the OSS, was appointed..director of the Office of Special Projects..renamed the Office of Policy Corrdination (OPC)..the espionage and counter-intelligence branch of the [CIA]. Jackson became the publisher of FORTUNE magazine…[In] February 1953..[he was] appointed as Special Assistant to the President…
“..According to Carl Bernstein, Jackson was ‘Henry Luce’s personal emissary to the CIA..[and] that in the 1950s Jackson..arranged for CIA employees to travel with Time-Life credentials as cover..[In] 1960 Jackson left the White House and became publisher of LIFE magazine. When Kennedy was assassinated, Jackson purchased the Zapruder film on behalf of Life.” C.D. Jackson died in 1964. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAjacksonCD.htm
“From Jackson, Rockefeller inherited a preoccupation with anti-Communist exiles and refugees… he recognized their political utility as walking, talking defamers of the Soviet system… One of Jackson’s inspirations at his National Committee for a Free Europe was a Free University in Exile, which would prepare young Eastern European refugees ‘to take over the leadership of their liberated countries’ ..one of his favorite hobbyhorses. Rockefeller..as well… The Pentagon, the CIA, the State Department, and the United States Information Agency [USIA] all took a hand in the project.” [p563, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
Atomic Weapons
“[The Rockefeller Foundation] would have preferred to distance themselves from the dubious honor bestowed by Ernest O. Lawrence who unwittingly boasted that “if it hadn’t been for the Rockefeller Foundation, there would have been no atomic bomb.” [p219, The Molecular Vision of Life, 1993, Lily E. Kay]http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2010/11/03/molecular-vision-rockefeller-science/
“In the 1960s, [Nelson Rockefeller] was a prime instigator of the country’s fallout shelter mania… In the same breath, he could speak of building more H-bombs” [introduction, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
“..as Eisenhower’s deputy, he choreographed the dramatic ‘Open Skies’ initiative at the 1955 summit [with the Russians in Geneva], arguably the United States’ greatest Cold War propaganda coup.” [introduction, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
   “Rockefeller brought [Walter] Rostow down to Washington to prepare a..draft… At the top of the list was the proposal of aerial inspection… the United States’ pending plans for aerial reconnaissance..included both balloons and supersonic spy aircraft, then under development by the CIA: a plane with the code name U-2…”
   “For the Quantico panel, the Geneva summit was not a place of peace-making, but simply a new arena for the never-ending East-West struggle… The Quantico group came up with  series of ‘soft’ proposals: expanded East-West trade, free and unhampered international communications, freer travel ‘for peaceful purposes’, further exploration of the peaceful uses of atomic energy. But the proposals on which the panel lavished most of their attention were the ‘hard’ ones, the ones the Soviets would [never] swallow… The Quantico group, indeed, foresaw just about every eventuality..except a meaningful breakthrough for peace. That much was clear in its disarmament game plan: ‘Proposal of a disarmament plan to the USSR; after rejection of the plan ['Open Skies'], the U.S. to make every effort to win the arms race…” [p583-585, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
   “[T]he setting of the proceedings: the Council Chamber of the Palais des Nations, the old League of Nations headquarters on the outskirts of Geneva..[looked] like they were in the middle of a boxing ring. Everywhere they turned they were confronted by grotesque frescoes adorning the walls, showing subhuman beasts tossing babies down the muzzles of cannons… Said British Foreign Minister Macmillan, ‘I could conceive of no arrangement less likely to lead to..useful negotiations.’…[but] Bulganin also brought to the conference table an olive branch: the Soviet Union would contribute to the Atoms For Peace pool [that] Eisenhower had proposed…The Presidents [other] proposals, Krushchev sneered, were nothing but a bald espionage plot… The outcome was exactly what Rockefeller had predicted…Rockefeller and his Quantico cohorts saw the Open Skies idea as a prelude to an arms buildup once the Russians rejected the proposal– which they felt was a foregone conclusion.” [pp597-607, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
“The Soviets would never accept Open Skies..  Still, in the summer of 1955, by Nelson Rockefeller’s reckoning, the Open Skies proposal had more than served its purpose, no matter what the Soviet response would be… A Western European poll which Rockefeller proudly forwarded to the President in early August, showed that 69% of the respondents believed Eisenhower was sincerely working for peace.” [p608, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
“[C]onservative elements [in Congress] shuddered at the prospect of an international nuclear pool over which the United States would have only limited control. Rockefeller took it as his mission to breathe new life into the moribund Atoms for Peace initiative. In that regard, it certainly did not hurt that he had a long-standing relationship with [Lewis] Strauss, who as a Kuhn, Loeb partner, had been one of the Rockefeller brothers’ financial advisers and who had later helped with the Point Four report… under Rockefeller’s prodding, Strauss began to come around.
…”the focus of Atoms for Peace shifted to bilateral technology agreements with selected countries. The United States would share information, and in some cases provide ‘research’ atomic reactors and supplies of nuclear fuel. A number of these agreements –with Turkey, Brazil, Canada, the Philippins, and Switzerland– were pending, and Rockefeller pushed Strauss and State to move them along before..the summer [1955]. As a result, the first pact with Turkey was signed on April 1, and seventeen more would be cleared by Congress in the months ahead… Rockefeller saw..a harvest of goodwill with these agreements. He targeted, in particular, the Far East. He tried in vain to secure an atomic reactor deal with the Philippines in time for the Bandung conference. Afterward, he discussed with Strauss the possibility of..a nuclear research center somewhere in Asia with the United States providing a reactor free of charge… [What] Rockefeller had in mind was basic and blunt: the United States would make a research reactor available, free, to any nation ready to train scientists in the peaceful uses of the atom. Rockefeller formed an atomic energy study group –essentially himself, Ruebhausen, and Stacy May– and began churning out memos to the President… Eisenhower..saw the peaceful propagation of atomic energy as potentially one of his greatest achievements in office…” [p567, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
Henry Kissinger
“Kissinger’s advancement was immeasurably aided by his Harvard mentor, Professor William Yandell Elliot..[who] more than any other individual..introduced Kissinger to the limitless possibilities available to the well-connected academic, putting Kissinger in charge of the Harvard International Seminar.  And it was Elliot who set the wheels in motion that would eventually secure Kissinger a place at Nelson Rockefeller’s bounteous table.
   “The intial point of contact was Bill Kintner…During..Kintner’s tenure as the [CIA's] chief covert operations planner, he recalls, he and Kissinger ‘saw a lot of each other and became extremely close friends.’  The CIA, through a front organization, would help fund Kissinger’s seminars…
   “Kissinger never met Nelson Rockefeller before he arrived for the first Quantico session… Yet it would not be long before this particular relationship would assume overwhelming personal significance for both men.” [p614-615, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller] “The Quantico II deliberations proceeded, and in mid-October [1955] a small group of panel members joined Kintner at West Point to hammer out the final report. The task of actually drafting the report fell to Kissinger… Because their work was highly classified, the panel members were confined..at the Hotel Thayer..[and] whenever they left the hotel for some air, military guards followed along… Rockefeller..would hold on to the Quantico II report until [Eisenhower's] return to Washington[from convalescing a near-fatal heart atttack after Geneva]… Rockefeller fastened on one high administration official he thought could be an ally, an official he deemed  kindred soul…the Vice President, Richard M. Nixon.” [p622-623, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
April 1956, the Special Studies Project:
“The brothers acceptd the fact that [a] study might serve as yet another vehicle for Nelson’s personal ambition..”[p651]..”But first he had to find someone to direct the study… It was then that Henry Kissinger’s name came up… [Bill] Kintner points out, ‘Henry was very bright and very ambitious, and Nelson was a very good thing to latch onto.” [p652]
   “Rockefeller, meanwile, was pulling together the membership of his overall panel… He had big businessmen… He had university presidents… And he had foundation bosses: Dean Rusk, the president of Rockefeller Foundation, and John Gardner, the president of Carnegie Corporation… The only member who could lay claim to eclectic thinking was physicist Edward Teller, the archconservative father of the hydrogen bomb. [p653]
   “To Rockefeller and Kissinger..the heart of U.S. policy making..’really seems to be lacking..a sense of mission,’ Kissinger wrote.. ‘without great goals it is impossible to achieve great things..’ [p654] …as the months passed, and the panelists gathered in a  succession of posh venues..certain ideas moved to the forefront. It was no coincidence that those ideas were the closely related progeny of the two most forceful intellects connected with the Special Studies Project: Kissinger and Edward Teller… “As much as any individual, Teller unleashed the staggeringly destructive potential of thermonuclear weaponry…While others fathers of the nuclear age, such as..Oppenheimer, shuddered at the detructive powers they had wrought..Teller suffered from no such compunctions… ‘The important thing in any science,’ he said,’is to do the things that can be done.’…Teller..urged a strong stance on disarmament: that is, a strong stance against it… Kissinger..agreed wholeheartedly with Teller’s views… Indeed, Kissinger at that very moment was putting the finishing touches on a book that vigorously advocated a nuclear policy virtually identical to Teller’s. In Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy, based on his work for the Council on Foreign Relations, Kissinger would argue that ‘limited nuclear war represents our most effective strategy.’ And, by happy coincidence, when the book was published in the summer of 1957, the reviewer[that] The New York Times assigned to it was none other than Edward Teller… Almost overnight, the concept of limited nuclear war moved from the far-out to the mainstream.” [p658, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller] “
“..[In] early October 1957…Sputnik, the first man-made object ever launched into space..portended a seismic shift in the global balance of power… [The] Russians..now wielded a potentially decisive weapon in the nuclear arms race… And so, in the curse of the last two months of the year, Rockefeller and Kissinger scrambled to prepare the..report for publication.” [p663] ..”Eisenhower went before Congress to deliver his State of the Union message and followed precisely the path Rockefeller had urged upon him.”[p666]
Governor of New York   1959-1973
“On Rockefeller’s watch, state spending more than quadrupled while the state’s debt grew from..$900 million in 1959 to $3.4 billion in 1973 –and on top of that, there was another $6.7 billion in debt..through..fiscal gimmicks..that brought New York City to the brink of bankruptcy less than two years after he left office.” [introduction, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller]
“As governor, Rockefeller demonstrated that he was a masterful orchestrator of both the levers and symbols of political power. He immediately found that the condition that satisfied most of the politically important interest groups in the state was the massive government construction program.” http://edwardjayepstein.com/rockefellers/chap5.htm
“Republican incumbent Senator Kenneth Keating of New York was known for being on the same team as Rockefeller…[Robert F. Kennedy defeated Keating]… [and] when..Robert Kennedy was assassinated..Nelson Rockefeller had to choose his replacement…
   “..In 1973 Rockefeller resigned as governor..[to]devote all of his time to his presidential campaign in 1976. But, in Washington D.C… Agnew resigned in disgrace..[and] Rockefeller called Nixon and asked for the vice presidency.”  http://www.juntosociety.com/vp/rockefeller.html
U.S. Vice President
   Ann C. Whitman, wife of United Fruit Co. executive Edward S. Whitman, served as Rockefeller’s vice-presidential Chief of Staff. Mrs. Whitman began a secretarial career working for Adele Rosenwald Levy, daughter of Julius Rosenwald, and became Dwight D. Eisenhower’s personal secretary in 1952. The Eisenhower administration infamously instigated a coup d’etat in Guatemala on behalf of United Fruit in 1954.  http://www.eisenhower.utexas.edu/Research/Finding_Aids/PDFs/Whitman_Ann_Papers.pdf 
From Eustace Mullins: http://www.modernhistoryproject.org/mhp/ArticleDisplay.php?Article=WorldCh02
“Many Americans are puzzled by the relentless devotion of the Rockefeller Foundation to financing Communist organizations in many parts of the world. This dedication to Communism can be traced back to a crucial moment in the Bolsheviks’ march to power. In 1917, Mackenzie King had established a lifelong relationship with John D. Rockefeller, Jr. whom he met in June, 1914…  Soon, King was working closely with Frederick T. Gates and Ivy Lee to further the Rockefeller “philantropies”, which seemed to view Communism as the ideal vehicle to bring about world brotherhood…The Rockefellers helped Mackenzie King obtain government contracts for the Canadian Army during World War I… the Rockefellers appointed Mackenzie King head of the Rockefeller Foundation dept. of Industrial Research at a salary of $30,000 a year (the average wage in the U.S. at that time was $500 year). Frank P. Walsh testified before a U.S. Commission that the Rockefeller Foundation was a cloak for the Rockefeller plan to lead organized labor into slavery… John D. Rockefeller instructed his press agent, Ivy Lee in 1925 to promote Communism in the U.S. and to sparkplug a public relations drive which culminated in 1933 with the U.S. government recognition of Soviet Russia. In 1927 Standard Oil of New Jersey built a refinery in Russia, after having been promised 50% of the Caucasus oil production…The Standard Oil operation has always been directed by the most professional bankers in the world, the Rothschilds; consequently, the Rothschilds through their agents, Kuhn, Loeb Co. have maintained close supervision of the “Rockefeller” fortune.”
“To protect these traitors, the U.S. government has imported 25 million aliens into the United States, which includes 5000 intensively trained terrorists, and 100,000 hardened criminals. This force is intended to neutralize the opposition of the American people to Communism. The government encourages crime, because it is the nationwide criminal force, not the police force, which keeps the population subdued.” http://www.modernhistoryproject.org/mhp/ArticleDisplay.php?Article=WorldCh02; “18 Months of Mayhem” (1933-1934) http://www.newvideo.com/history/crime-wave-18-months-of-mayhem/; “Public Enemies: America’s Greatest Crime Wave and the Birth of the FBI” http://www.powells.com/biblio?PID=28467&cgi=product&isbn=1594200211

“On April 29, 1943, the Board of Economic Warfare granted a special license to Chematar Corp. of New York to fill an order from the Soviet Purchasing Commission for 200 lb. uranium oxide, 220 lb. uranium nitrate, and 25 lb. of uranium metal, commodities virtually unknown at that time, thus launching the Soviet atomic program. Today every American citizen lives under the threat of Soviet nuclear war.” http://www.modernhistoryproject.org/mhp/ArticleDisplay.php?Article=WorldCh02

“Brezhnev, dictator of Russia, was asked why the Soviet Union did not take a role in Middle East negotiations. He replied, “We don’t need representation. Kissinger is our man in the Middle East.” http://www.modernhistoryproject.org/mhp/ArticleDisplay.php?Article=WorldCh02

“By betraying the anti-Communist fighters at the Bay of Pigs, the CIA bolstered Castro’s shaky regime and destroyed his opposition. He has never again faced any challenge. Former CIA official David Attlee Phillips says (p. 107, “THE NIGHT WATCH”) that Dean Rusk (Rockefeller Foundation) ordered the cancellation of the air strike, which doomed the anti-Communist forces at the Bay of Pigs to annihilation.”  http://www.modernhistoryproject.org/mhp/ArticleDisplay.php?Article=WorldCh02


The Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government http://www.rockinst.org/about_us/

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