ASST SECRETARY OF WAR
PRESIDENT OF THE WORLD BANK, 1947-1949
HIGH COMMISSIONER OF GERMANY, 1949-1952
CHAIRMAN, CHASE MANHATTAN BANK, 1950-1953,
CHAIRMAN, FORD FOUNDATION : Trustee from 1953-1965
CHAIRMAN, COUNCIL on FOREIGN RELATIONS (1954-1970)
CHAIRMAN, SALK INSTITUTE
WARREN COMMISSION (1964)
John J. McCloy (1895-1989)– his status as a power-broker earned him the nickname of “Chairman of the Establishment”. Trained as a lawyer at Harvard, he entered the nexus of the “Frankfurter-Brandeis coterie“** that helped forge American foreign policy between the world wars and the diplomacy of the atomic arms race that followed. The Secretary of War, Henry Stimson, brought McCloy into D.C. government in 1940 and appointed him Assistant Secretary for military affairs in 1941. After WWII, McCloy performed directly on behalf of the Rockefeller interests, facilitating the process of globalization. The biographical elements of John J. McCloy’s life, below, are quoted (italicised) from the books The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made (authors Walter Isaacson and Evan Thomas, 1986, Simon and Schuster, Rockefeller Center NY, NY) and The Chairman, John J. McCloy The Making of the American Establishment (author Kai Bird, 1992, Simon and Schuster).
**”The Frankfurter-Brandeis coterie
” was a legion of lawyers who swept into prominence by serving Frankfurter’s “unofficial war cabinet
“, meaningful in light of Felix Frankfurter’s early clandestine knowledge of atomic weapons through his friendship with Niels Bohr, begun at Harvard in 1923. The chiefs of the Manhattan Project were aware of the Bohr-Frankfurter alliance, the potential of passing secrets, the influence on diplomacy and war outcomes, and chose to ignore it. http://www.rocfern.com/jennlake/FathersofTheBombPartI.html
; in 1924, McCloy was hired by Paul Cravath
, the leading firm for Kuhn, Loeb & Co
., becoming partner in July of 1929; in 1946, McCloy joined the law firm Milbank, Tweed, Hadley (& McCloy) “At Milbank, McCloy
acted for the “Seven Sisters” (the leading multinational oil companies, including Exxon), in their initial confrontations with the nationalisation movement in Libya – as well as negotiations with Saudi Arabia and OPEC… McCloy..remained a general partner for 27 years, until he passed away in 1989.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milbank,_Tweed
”McCloy was not a conceptualizer. He was an implementer.”[p330] :
THE SIX FRIENDS – “two bankers, two lawyers, two diplomats” [p25]
Averell Harriman – “..negotiated his own private mineral concessions with Trotsky…Harriman often seemed a sovereign in his own realm…he earned the nickname ‘The Crocodile’
” [p20]; graduate of Groton and Yale http://www.answers.com/topic/w-averell-harriman
– Groton, Yale and Harvard; “it was not until he studied under Felix Frankfurter at Harvard Law School that his mental agility was honed into the intellectual intensity that was to mark his tenure as Truman’s Secretary of State
” [p22] “Lovett and Acheson were affectionate friends who immensely enjoyed each other’s company…both were elegant and polished”
[p418]; “After World War II, Dean Acheson
frantically lobbied for an additional $300 million loan to the Soviet Union. Ed Burling, who was Frederic A. Delano’s brother-in-law, had founded the firm of Covington and Burling of which Acheson was partner, with Donald Hiss, brother of Alger.” http://www.modernhistoryproject.org/mhp/ArticleDisplay.php?Article=WorldCh02
John J. McCloy - “Nothing pleased McCloy more than having important people counting on him“[p119] “McCloy always seemed worried about not having enough money“[p335] “..his long career would weave private and public concerns so skillfully that it became difficult to tell where one ended and the other began“[p429]
– “..in many ways the opposite of Kennan..[y]et the two men became best of friends…Together they helped open the first U.S. mission to the Soviet Union following American recognition in 1933
” [p25] http://www.answers.com/topic/bohlen-charles-eustis
Jack McCloy’s career began taking off in 1925 when he joined the firm of Cravath, Henderson & de Gersdorff which with ” was being transformed by Paul Cravath into the first of the modern Wall Street firms” based on a surge of post-WWI business that opened a flow of American investment into the rebuilding of Europe. “In 1925, for example, the firm collaborated with Brown Brothers & Company on the issuance of $30 million of bonds for the kingdom of Norway. That year the firm also dealt with some mineral concessions being offered by the Soviet Union; McCloy worked closely with [Averell] Harriman… Paul Cravath, an early bankroller of the Council on Foreign Relations, assured that his firm handled much of this [international] work. Soon after McCloy joined Cravath, the firm participated with J.P.Morgan in a mammoth $110 million loan to the German government. In the ensuing years, McCloy spent much of his time traveling in Europe. For almost a full year he lived in Italy, where the Cravath firm was advising the government. ‘What took place after WWI was the forerunner of the Marshall Plan,’ McCloy later said. …As would happen to other leaders of the American Establishment, McCloy became entranced by Jean Monnet… Monnet was then an international financier with Blair & Company in New York and Paris, and McCloy became his lawyer. Together they worked on issuing securities for European municipalities and the merger of Blair into Transamerica Corporation.” [p122]
Cravath hired McCloy in part after his ”speakeasy companion Benny Buttenweiser had been introducing him to the select world of Kuhn Loeb, which was invariably represented by Cravath and had its offices in the same building… Kuhn Loeb was second only to the House of Morgan; over the years it had sybdicated some $10 billion worth of loans for various corporations and governments all over the world. Buttenweiser and his peers..referred to themselves as part of ‘Our Crowd’, or the ‘One Hundred’ to differentiate themselves from..New York’s gentile social elite… [T]wo younger Kuhn Loeb men thast McCloy met were remarkable personalities… Both Lewis L. Strauss and Sir William Wiseman were to become lifelong friends..[p60, The Chairman]..McCloy was strongly attracted by the idea of working with such wealthy and influential Cravath clients. He also wanted work that included traveling abroad. Much of Kuhn Loeb’s business was syndicating war reconstruction loans..and Cravath handled all the transactions…so..on December 1, 1924, McCloy moved just around the corner in Cravath’s offices at 52 William Street [NYC]. He was now part of the exacting ‘Cravath’ system…[and personally] sponsored by Don Swatland… McCloy’s clients were investment bankers, corporations such as Westinghouse, the Radio Corporation of America, Bethlehem Steel Co., and a variety of railroads. [p62, ibid.] McCloy worked long hours, but he also managed to bring himself into the social circles of Cravath’s most valued clients…[He] became good friends with Frederick Warburg..the eldest grandson of Schiff. ‘Freddie’..had just joined Kuhn Loeb after a stint with his uncle Max’s merchant [bank]..in Hamburg… It did not escape Paul Cravath’s notice that McCloy regularly socialized with..Kuhn Loeb personalities…[p64]…His circle of acquaintances now included a group of rising young bankers and businessmen who became lifelong friends.” [p68, The Chairman]
“The Belgian Relief Commission of 1916 became the Marshall Plan of 1948. Once again, the loads of supplies were shipped into Europe, ostensibly for our Allies, but destined to maintain the Soviet bloc.”…”Jacob Schiff
‘s personal agent, George Kennan
[George F. Kennan's uncle], had regularly toured Russia during the latter part of the nineteenth century, bringing in money and arms for the Communist revolutionaries” http://www.modernhistoryproject.org/mhp/ArticleDisplay.php?Article=WorldCh02
: recognized as the ‘father’ of the European Union through gradualist
creation; adviser to FDR on U.S. war production http://www.answers.com/topic/jean-monnet
; Monnet founded Bancamerica-Blair Corp. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,929871,00.html
; “Elisha Walker’s Blair & Co. merged with Amadeo Peter Gianinni’s Bank of America, N.A.” July 1, 1929 http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,732601,00.html
; Elisha Walker
became a longtime Kuhn, Loeb & Co. partner (1933-1950) after his ouster from Transamerica http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,745761-2,00.html
”Jean Monnet; became a member of the extremely elite Roxburghe Club, together with members of the Cecil, Cavendish, Howard, Mellon, Rothschild, and Oppenheimer families”…”John Foster Dulles (Pilgrims Society) of Sullivan & Cromwell who provided the financial backing for Monnet’s next investment company, Monnet, Murnane & Co., in 1935″ http://owg.livejournal.com/52776.html
; source document, describing the “Pinay Cercle
“, established in the 1950s, of which Monnet was considered its most influential member http://www.scribd.com/doc/11830651/Pinay-Cercle
“Through his work at Cravath, McCloy became friends with [Robert A.] Lovett and Harriman. In the ten years after he joined the Cravath firm, McCloy helped paper more than $77 million worth of bond issues for Union Pacific. Later he joined Lovett and Harriman on the railroad’s board of directors.[p120]. Nothing pleased McCloy more than having important people counting on him.[p119]. McCloy later recalled, ‘I knew I could hold my own with anyone. I knew I could accomplish any task…”[p120]. McCloy nourished a network of personal contacts: “he was a regular at the indoor tennis courts of the Heights Casino in Brooklyn… Eventually he was invited to join the University, Grolier, Anglers and Broad Street Clubs… He also became a regular at the Long Island and Westchester County house parties frequented by Harriman, Lovett and their friends. Lovett..soon became a close friend.”[p121].
“One day in 1929, McCloy was in Arizona on business..[and] unexpectedly ran into his old friend and classmate Lew Douglas, by then an Arizona congressman, and his wife Peggy [Zinsser]. They rode together all the way to New York.. [p122] ..[McCloy]was chosen to head Cravath’s Paris office and was ordered to set sail on April 25, 1930. That morning he married Ellen [Zinsser, Peggy's sister], and they sailed together. Soon after he arrived in Paris, McCloy got a call from his New York office that would change the course of his career. He was told to travel to the Hague, where one of the firm’s clients, Bethlehem Steel, was party to a complex case before the Mixed Claims Commission. It involved a mysterious explosion in July of 1916 at a munitions depot on a small spit of land near Jersey City known as ‘Black Tom’. Bethlehem Steel, which had manufactured the munitions (scheduled for shipment to Russia) and the other plaintiffs sought to prove that the Germans had arranged the sabotage… It turned out to be a ten-year assignment.” [p123]
http://www.nytimes.com/1989/03/12/obituaries/john-j-mccloy-lawyer-and-diplomat-is-dead-at-93.html In 1916, Black Tom Island was a railhead on the New Jersey side of New York Harbor that was overloaded with traincars-full of weapons and supplies bound for the Allies across the Atlantic. Deep in the wee hours of July 31, 1916, a barge stacked with TNT was ignited in a massive blast, followed by a succession of explosions that completely incinerated the artificial penninsula. Within two weeks, the largest polio outbreak yet to occur was peaking across New York City, concentrated in Brooklyn. The combined event put Black Tom Island in the history books as the largest domestic terror attack until the Oklahoma City Murrah Building bombing, and the polio outbreak that followed it led to unprecendented quarantine and the deputizing of health officers.
Black Tom Island smoldered for weeks. The Jersey Journal headline (link below) listed 50 dead but the casualty limit was never known. Both sides of the harbor were rocked, windows blown, and damages recorded as far as 25 miles away.
The perpetrators of the Black Tom attack were never caught but reparations paid by Germany to the railroads, decided in 1939, exceeded $50 million. The last payment was made in 1979. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Tom_explosion
“McCloy was a master at seeking accommodation and negotiating agreements; rarely did he or his client appear in court… Cravath firm notes, ‘no partner has had greater personal popularity in the firm than McCloy.’ [p124].
ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF WAR
“Henry Lewis Stimson, the son of a well-connected surgeon and professor at Cornell Medical School…first met John cCloy when, as Secretary of State, he tried to persuade him to drop the Bethlehem Steel suit arising out of the alleged German sabotage… ‘Mr. Secretary,’ he replied, ‘I can prove this case if you’ll let me’…[p180]
“By 1935, McCloy had moved to Washington as the de facto commander of the large battery of lawyers and officials handling the case for the various plaintiffs. He showed an enormous ability for getting people to put aside their own rivalries, brusquely assigning tasks and coordinating the assemblage of mountains of evidence…[p124]
“Late the following year, after Stimson had been named Secretary of War, he summoned McCloy to Washington as a special consultant on German espionage. After six months on the job, McCloy had worked his way up to become an Assistant Secretary..for political and military affairs… McCloy learned the ropes of Washington so well that the Secretary often wondered whether anyone in town ever acted without ‘having a word with McCloy’.[p183]
“The real dynamos on [Stimson's] staff were the two men Stimson called the ‘Heavenly Twins’, or in fits of temper, the ‘Imps of Satan’ –Jack McCloy and Bob Lovett. ‘McCloy was the man who handled everything that no one else happened to be handling,’ Stimson said in his memoirs… Recalled McCloy, ‘My job was to be at all the points of the organizational chart where the lines did not quite intersect’… Their work in the War Department from 1940 to 1945 would earn McCloy and Lovett, who were by then in their late forties, a central place in the nation’s national security Establishment. They would first make their names as proteges of Henry Stimson, then as powerful decision makers in their own rights.” [p192]
..”anyone wishing to get anything done in the War Department soon came to realize this pair of amiable interlopers from Wall Street controlled much of what went on…” [p193]
“Lovett was once asked to pick the greatest negotiator he ever met. Without hesitation, he named McCloy. Indeed, McCloy seemd to have a magic ability to conjure a consensus out of chaos.” [p194]
“Stimson often dispatched McCloy to handle troublesme commanders, among them George Patton…” [p196]
“McCloy was also responsible for the construction of the Pentagon, which became known as ‘McCloy’s folly’…[p201]
HIGH COMMISSIONER OF GERMANY (1949-1952)
…”By the end of the war, McCloy’s reputation as an adroit fixer was made. The gnomelike Assistant Secretary seemed able to tread sensitive turf without leaving footprints or enemies in his trail… One day, as American forces pushed into Germany, Roosevelt called McCloy into his office… ‘I’m making you High Commissioner for Germany,’ Roosevelt explained. ‘Don’t you think that’s premature?’ McCloy asked. ‘We haven’t won the war yet.’…[p202] The Nuremberg trials were over by the time McCloy arrived…He continued the denazification program to rid government of all former Nazis.[p516] Still, there can be no question that by 1951 McCloy was worrying far less about Nazis than about making Germany strong enough to resist the Soviets. [p517, The Wise Men]
DROPPING THE ATOM BOMB
At the time of FDR’s death on April 12, 1945, “Truman had been Vice-President only eighty-three days… He had not been told about the atom bomb. [p254]. Truman may have been the least prepared man in American history to assume the Presidency. [p255]
…”As a way of meeting this ‘moral responsibility’ [on the decision to drop the bomb], Stimson proposed, and Truman accepted, the creation of a special group known as the Interim Committee, to explore the implications of the new weapon. In addition to Stimson, [James] Byrnes, and [Prescott] Bush, the group..included..James Bryant Conant, MIT president Karl Compton, and the bomb’s master scientist, J. Robert Openheimer. [p274]. With Stimson’s approval, McCloy had gone to San Francisco primarily to make sure the the new United Nations did not usurp Washington’s security prerogatives… On the phone..McCloy outlined what he called a ‘have our cake and eat it too’ strategy…[p275]
“There was a vague awareness that the atomic bomb was unique. Stimson, in fact, had told the Interim Committee that he did ‘not regard it as a new weapon but as a revolutionary change in the relations of man to the universe.’ Even the scientists were not fully aware of the effects of the radioactivity the device would release, and they certainly did not stress to Stimson or other officials that mysterious fallout might make it a far more sinister weapon than even gas or chemicals. Truman and his advisers thought, for the most part, that they were faced with a bomb of incredible force…but not necessarily one that was more morally abhorrent than the massive fire-bombing raids… Thus the plan to use the bomb against Japan had acquired a momentum of its own.”[p294]
“Stimson focused on the next stage of the drama: the pressing need for the U.S. and the Soviets to find some way to control the new atomic monster once the war was over.
…McCloy tended to think Stimson was being a bit naive. His own assessment was that it would be tough to get along with the Russians… Both men agreed, however, that it was essential to achieve a more stable relationship with Russia. [p302] McCloy and Stimson felt quite strongly that Truman should tell Stalin about the bomb before it was used… The Interim Committee..had also recommended such a course. Truman agreed. But..[h]e was determined to down play the significance.. and avoid yielding any details. [p304] Unbeknownst to the Americans [at Potsdam], Klaus Fuchs.. had seven times fed detailed information about the workings of the device to Moscow. The fervent dedication to secrecy of McCloy and Stimson, which did so much to prevent a full consideration on whether or how the bomb should be used, had done nothing to keep the Soviets in the dark.”[p305].
Stimson had four Assistant Secretaries of War: Robert A. Lovett, John J. McCloy, Robert Patterson and Harvey Bundy. Bundy had served Stimson in the State Department and acted as his personal assistant and “special assistant for atomic affairs” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harvey_Hollister_Bundy
The roots of atomic development began before the 1920s, but it was during the interwar years when promising technical advances were achieved, a situation still shrouded in secrecy and largely expunged from written history, showing that early atomic know-how, clandestinely held, appears to be a key in understanding the diplomatic maneuvering of the 1930s. “International control”, as it was proposed by the Interim Committee and in the Acheson-Lilienthal plan, was a driving objective long before WWII ended. Evidence from the roles of German-Jewish refugee scientists who fanned out to receiving industrial countries from 1933 until mid-war are partly assessed in these processes, here: http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2010/11/08/atomic-power-no-contest/
, suggesting that ‘scientific’ control was the goal.
“The formal order to proceed with plans to drop the atomic bomb was approved by Stimson early on the morning of July 25 , the day he left the [Potsdam] conference. [p309]. ‘The news from Alamogordo’ [Stimson] later wrote, ‘made it clear to the Americans that further diplomatic efforts to bring the Russians into the Pacific war were..pointless.’ He and McCloy discussed the issue with Marshall at their villa… Their reluctance to have the Soviets help finish off the Japanese was stronger than their reluctance to use the bomb.”[p310]. No hint of reluctance to drop the bomb, however, appears in The Wise Men. ” ‘I regarded the bomb as a military weapon,’ Truman wrote in his memoirs, ‘and never had any doubt that it should be used.‘ [p311]. Truman issued the proclamation to Japan that Stimson and McCloy had worked on for more than a month… nothing was added to make clear that the ultimatum was a warning about the impending use of an atomic bomb.[p310] Neither McCloy nor Stimson..argued for a more explicit warning. McCloy, in fact, noted that he was happy with the final document… Some revisionist historians (as well as official Soviet ones) have gone so far as to say that American leaders were not only willing to use the atomic bomb rather than rely on Soviet help, but in fact were anxious to drop it as a way to cow the Soviets into being more compliant on Eastern Europe and other issues. Thus there was no desire to have the Japanese surrender and deprive the U.S. of the opportunity to demonstrate its fearsome..weapon.” [p311]
“Once again, Stimson turned the matter over to McCloy to coordinate. Instead of wrestling with the objections…[t]he way McCloy interpreted [FDR's] nondecision tended to guarantee that the final outcome would be a major evacuation. ‘We have carte blanche to do what we want as far as the President is concerned,’ he told the general [De Witt in California]. As usual, McCloy saw his role as that of a coordinator rather than a policy maker. But with everyone seeking to avoid responsibility for making the policy, the decision evolved through the way it was coordinated. De Witt and his military advisers began preparing a detailed recommendation for an evacuation. ‘The Japanese race is an enemy race,’ they wrote… The moral dilemnas surrounding the program were still unsettled in 1981, when a commission appointed by President Carter examined the matter. The eighty-six-year-old McCloy, bitter at what he considered the panel’s bias, became quite prickly… What occurred ’was a relocation program and not an internment,’ he claimed, causing the audience to hiss… The panel’s final verdict was that the relocation was the result of ‘race prejudice, war hysteria and a failure of political leadership.’ ..Biddle recalled in a 1968 interview..’I never excuse him for doing this.’ ..In acting as a pragmatic coordinator of the consensus he felt was forming around him, McCloy failed to consider the moral questions involved. But raising moral considerations was not necessarily McCloy’s job, and certainly not his style.” [pp198-199]
“The world, [George F.] Kennan had learned, was not run by Stimsonian gentlemen… So Kennan suggested something that would probably have sent Stimson reeling: the establishment of a new espionage apparatus to spy on the Soviets’ atomic facilities. [p327].
“Upon returning from his world tour, McCloy was presented with a surprising offer from [Sec. of State] Byrnes. Now that Harriman was talking about resgning, the Secretary said, McCloy was the President’s choice to be the next ambassador in Moscow. ‘It was most flattering and disturbing..’ McCloy noted in his journal… Another offer came from Amherst, which wanted him to be its next president. Throughout the fall, McCloy agonized about his future. It would be difficult, he wrote, ‘to get back to humdrum things.’ But he badly needed to make money again… McCloy always seemed worried about not having enough money. Extremely lucrative offers were coming in from the top law firms of Wall Street, including one from Milbank, Tweed, Hope and Hadley to become a name partner… Finally he decided..[on] the partnership of Milbank, Tweed, which handled the affairs of the Rockefeller family and the Chase Bank… Thus..as he re-entered private life, McCloy became actively involved in the Council on Foreign Relations… [I]t would serve as a perfect base for his own special talents.” [p336]
WORLD BANK (1947-1949, preceding McCloy’s official service as the occupying High Commissioner of Germany)
“John J. McCloy had become president of the Internatonal Bank for Reconstruction and Development –better known as the World Bank– at the end of February 1947, leaving once again his lucrative law practice with Milbank, Tweed. ‘When he took over,’ according to the New York Times, ‘the bank was eight months old, split by dissension, sadly lacking in prestige, and had not lent one dime.’ In McCloy’s view, the bank’s weakness was ‘too much politics, too little finance’ In a series of meetings and speeches with businessmen and financiers, many of them his friends, he made the case fo investing in Europe: to create markets for U.S. trade, to cure the dollar surplus, to stop Communism… The Bank was the perfect vehicle for McCloy, who over his long career would weave private and public concerns so skillfully that it became difficult to tell where one ended and the other began.” [pp428-429]
WORLD BANK…”The Truman administration had difficulty finding a suitable successor to Eugene Meyer…McCloy was probably first approached by Eugene Meyer and Chester McLain (the Bank’s general counsel), and by Eugene Black (then vice president of the Chase National Bank, and soon to become the U.S. executive director for the Bank, and then Bank president). All three urged that he insist on appropriate executive authority before accepting the position…[O]n May 7, 1947 – six weeks after McCloy’s arrival – the Bank’s first loan was made to the Credit National
, a semipublic French corporation, for postwar reconstruction
. This loan, the very first, deviated from what was to be the standard pattern for loans: it was not for a specific project, but rather a general purpose loan,
covering almost every sphere of activity in industrial life. The first loan helped establish some of the Bank’s most important policies…” http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/EXTARCHIVES/0,,contentMDK:20504728~pagePK:36726~piPK:437378~theSitePK:29506,00.html
CHAIRMAN, CHASE MANHATTAN BANK
“President Eisenhower had had misgivings about choosing [J. Foster] Dulles as his Secretary of State [replacing Acheson]. He rather preferred John McCloy, whom he had known well since McCloy was Assistant Secretary of War… McCloy was much more easygoing and pragmatic than Dulles, more Ike’s sort. Eisenhower’s advisers, however, had warned that McCloy was too closely tied to Acheson. ..Eisenhower tried another idea: He would make McCloy Under Secretary and then, after a year or so, bring Dulles over to the White House as his National Security Adviser… Dulles volunteered himself to broach this idea to McCloy… McCloy was reluctant. He told Dulles that he was broke and wanted to make money. McCloy was also suspicious. ‘What are you going to do, Foster?’ he asked. As he listened to Dulles explain, he got the feeling that Dulles would remain as policy maker, leaving McCloy to ‘act as caretaker and do dirty jobs’. McCloy refused. ..[He] returned to Wall Street. He would never hold public office again, save or a brief tour as Kennedy’s special assistant for disarmament. Yet in many ways, he would wield more power out of the government than in. As Chairman of the Chase Manhattan Bank, he became a kind of private statesman, an emissary of American capitalism. At the bank itself, he was characteristically disarming, starting on the first floor and working his way up introducing himself to every employee (‘Hello, I’m Jack McCloy’). At the same time he aggressively pushed the bank into international markets, lending billions of dollars and picking up myriad IOUs… He had total access, not just in Washington but in European and Middle Eastern capitals. Foreign leaders, when they came to the United States, paid homage to him, as if he were a sovereign in his own right. McCloy leveraged his power by joining boards; he became a director of, among other companies, Westinghouse, Allied Chemical, United Fruit, each with its own vast international empire; he also became chairman of the Ford Foundation, the richest dispenser of philanthropy…
In 1956, it was McCloy who picked Henry Kissinger, then an obscure Harvard government professor, to chair a study on Soviet-American relations. For Kissinger, this was his first break into the foreign policy elite; McCloy later helped Kissinger get a job on Nelson Rockefeller’s payroll as a speech writer.” [pp570-572]
As the Rockefellers’ banker, McCloy was heavily involved in financing oil production in Arab countries… McCloy regularly found himself shuttling back and forth between New York and Middle Eastern capitals, handling multibillion-dollar oil deals… Eisenhower and Dulles were only too happy to make McCloy their unofficial emissary to the Arab world… McCloy was perfectly suited to his public-private role. The U.S. government felt it could trust him to look after the national interest as well as the Rockefellers’, and in fact the two seemed perfectly congruent. By maintaining close personal relationships with Arab rulers, McCloy helped guarantee stability, a steady supply of cheap oil, and a buffer against the Soviets. It was the sort of practical diplomacy that McCloy could practice better than anyone. [p573].
In the late fifties [Acheson] became increasingly involved in building a shadow government… In 1957, he read with great interest a new book by McCloy’s discovery at the Council on Foreign Relations, Henry Kissinger, called Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy. Acheson was a bit unnerved by Kissinger’s argument that limited nuclear war should be considered a strategic option… [p582]
“By a strange coincidence of fate, it was Robert Lovett and John J. McCloy who, together with Robert B. Anderson, formed Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson‘s team of financial experts concerned with tracking WWII gold looted by the Axis powers. Indeed, Lovett and McCloy were responsible for negotiating the secret agreement hidden behind the Bretton Woods Agreement concerning the establishment of the Black Eagle trust that was to make use of plundered WWII bullion in the postwar years.” (Project Hammer Reloaded. By David G. Guyatt. Nexus Magazine Aug.-Sep. 2003;10(5 ).) He married Ellen Zinsser, whose sister was the wife of Lewis W. Douglas. Her nephews, Stuart and Peter Douglas, and Timothy and John Zinsser were ushers. Harry Brunie of New York was best man. F. Trubee Davison was among the guests. (Other Weddings. New York Times, Apr, 26, 1930.)
Partner of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy; former presidential advisor; former Chairman of the Ford Foundation (1952-1965) and Chase Manhattan Bank; Chairman of the Board of Amherst College; member of the Council on Foreign Relations and Atlantic Institute. Between 1968 and 1972, McCloy was also an Honorary Life Trustee of Lenox Hill Hospital, whose Chairman expressed the Board of Trustees’ gratitude to the Council for Tobacco Research for funding the work of Sheldon Sommers. (Letters from E. Everett Smith, Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Lenox Hill Hospital, to W.T. Hoyt of the CTR.) Sommers was later a member of the CTR’s Scientific Advisory Board. Other trustees of Lenox Hill included Benjamin J. Buttenweiser, Limited Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co.; Robert C. Hills, the President of Benno Schmidt‘s firm, Freeport Sulphur, and Charles A. Wight, its retired Vice Chairman; and William H. Zinsser, who headed the United Hospital Campaign in 1943-44 under Roy E. Larsen of Time, Inc.
“JOHN J. McCLOY: MR. ESTABLISHMENT, John J. McCloy was born on March 31, 1895. His law firm, Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy, represented the Rockefeller interests beginning in the 1920′s. In June 1941 Vacuum Oil and Royal Dutch Shell Oil entered into a deal with the Soviets wherein they would purchase oil from the Soviet Union. This infuriated the Standard Oil Companies of New Jersey, which was controlled by the Rockefeller family. The Standard Oil Company of New Jersey announced its refusal to buy oil from Soviet Russia until it recognizes private property rights. The New York Times reported: “The Standard of New Jersey owns a 51% interest in the Nobel Company, a Russian oil unit that was nationalized along with the rest of the Russian petroleum interests after the Soviets took charge of the Government. The Standard of New Jersey had no substantial interests in Russia prior to the nationalization of the industry. The Standard of New Jersey, through its ownership of control of the Nobel Company has a claim against the Soviet Government.” [NYT 1.16.28] The New York Times reported: “The Rockefellers, who are largely interested in the Standard of New Jersey and the Vacuum Oil Company, are expected to use their influence to prevent any widening of the breach between the three companies.” [NYT 7.26.27] In the 1930′s, John J. McCloy became a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. During World War II, John J. McCloy was an Assistant to the Secretary of Defense, and supervised the Strategic Services Unit of the War Department in 1944. In 1945 he was appointed High Commissioner to Germany, the top-ranking United States official there. By 1947 John J. McCloy was an official in the Office of Policy Coordination. He worked closely with Frank Wisner on numerous CIA operations in post-war Europe. In the early 1950′s John J. McCloy pardoned Nazi war criminals, despite protests from divergent quarters. When he returned to the United States, John J. McCloy resumed his role as the Attorney for the Rockefellers, and engineered the merger of the Chase and Manhattan Banks. The Chase Manhattan Bank was employed to launder CIA funds. John J. McCloy was installed as a Director of the Chase Manhattan Bank and a Director of the Rockefeller Foundation. John J. McCloy was a Director of United Fruit. In 1959 he worked with the CIA in funding anti-Communist activities at the Vienna World Youth Festival. He was a close friend of the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, John McCone. After the Cuban Missile Crisis in October 1962, John J. McCloy negotiated with the Russians. In 1964 John J. McCloy thought it was imperative to “show the world that America is not a banana republic, where a government can be changed by a conspiracy.” John J. McCloy was involved in the overthrow of Joao Goulart simultaneously with his position on the Warren Commission. Joao Goulart, a left-of-center President of Brazil, had expropriated the iron ore concessions of a client of John J. McCloy. John J. McCloy worked with Colonel Vernon Walters, the U.S. Military Attache in Rio on this operation. NIXON suggested in 1972 that the Justice Department appoint John J. McCloy as the Special Prosecutor in Watergate. He refused the assignment.”
[Eustace Mullins]… “On May 24, 1979, a 14 ft. bronze statue of General William J. Donovan was dedicated in front of Columbia University’s Law School. The dedication speech was delivered by John J. McCloy, who had been Asst. Sec. of War when Donovan founded the Office of Strategic Services in World War II.” http://www.whale.to/b/mullins44.html
The death of Ellen’s father Frederick in 1956 was a notable passing in Time magazine’s ‘Milestones’ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,891716,00.html?iid=chix-sphere “Died. Frederick G. Zinsser, 87, organizer, president (1897-1925) and chairman of the board (1925-52) of Zinsser & Co., chemical manufacturing firm; in Hastings on Hudson, N.Y. Among his noted relatives : his daughters, Ellen, wife of former U.S. High Commissioner for Germany John J. McCloy, and Peggy, wife of former U.S. Ambassador to the Court of St. James’s Lewis Douglas; his brother, the late Bacteriologist-Author Hans (Rats, Lice and History) Zinsser.”
X-rays in laboratory research for medical purposes can be demonstrated by Dr. Hans Zinsser, who became a bacteriologist of high academic achievement and wrote his first paper in 1903 on the effects of radium on bacteria. Years later, in the 1930s while seeking a vaccine against typhus, Zinsser applied x-rays to lab rats in order to destroy their resistence to typhus rickettsiae (carried by fleas). Zinsser’s biography reveals that, “vitamin deficient diets, benzene poisoning and exposure to x-rays were used to decrease [the rats'] resistence; the last method proved most efficacious.“ p338 http://www.nap.edu/html/biomems/hzinsser.pdf. The document also reveals an awareness and subtly-worded concern over what he called “residue antigens” from viral vaccine filtrate. Hans Zinsser died of leukemia in 1940. www.polioforever.wordpress.com/x-rays/