“I say this with all the earnestness and sincerity of a scientist who has spent nearly twenty years research into the chemistry, biochemistry, physiology and pathology of fluorine. Any person who drinks artificially fluoridated water for a period of one year or more will never again be the same person, mentally or physically.”–Charles Eliot Perkins, 1954
“The story behind fluoridation [in the U.S.] began at the turn of the century when reports of an unexplained dental disorder surfaced in Naples, Italy, and Colorado Springs, Colorado. In 1901 Dr. John Eager, a government physician, reported to his Washington superiors a strange, disfiguring dental condition found in U.S.- bound emigrants from the Naples area. “One is struck with the frequency of a dental peculiarity common among the inhabitants. . .of black teeth apparently strong and serviceable but devoid of enamel and hideously dark,” he wrote. Eager’s superiors published his report but assigned him to other tasks…
Meanwhile, Dr. Frederick McKay, who had just graduated from the University of Pennsylvania dental school, noticed a similar disorder in many of his patients in Colorado Springs. Disturbed by the unsightly dark stains on his patients’ otherwise healthy teeth, McKay began a decades-long investigation into the disorder. In 1908 he enlisted the help of the eminent Dr. Greene Vardiman Black. Black, who named the condition “mottled enamel,” and McKay found the mysterious defect in numerous areas of the country.”
“Dr. Greene Vardiman Black, considered a founding father of modern American dental research, came on the scene in the late nineteenth century. A self-taught scientist who learned dentistry through an apprenticeship, Black influenced virtually every facet of dentistry…Despite the achievements of Black and a handful of other researchers, dental science lacked a substantial following in the United States… By 1918 dental research had attracted some dedicated advocates. Among them was Dr. William Gies, professor of biological chemistry at Columbia University”…
“Wartime experiences drew the federal government into dental research… Still, fewer than a dozen dentists and scientists investigated dental problems for the government before the outbreak of World War II… The World War II military recruiting experience revealed the extent of dental disease in the nation. In 1940 almost 400,000 potential recruits lacked the six opposing teeth the military required to ‘bite the cartridge’ ” http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/pdf/american.pdf
”Father of Communal Fluoridation”
“The first paid lawsuit damages for fluorine emissions took place in Freiburg, Germany, in 1855, and in 1893 these smelters incurred 880,000 marks in damages and 644,000 marks for permanent relief.1 American industry took notice. In 1895, Andrew W. Mellon founded ALCOA, and in 1913, created the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research at the University of Pittsburgh, to protect company interests from fluorine emission and other lawsuits. In 1921 he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury, with the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) under his control.”
[in 1902, the USPHS was created from the Marine Hospital Service]
…” Funded by Ethyl Corporation, General Electric and DuPont in 1930, the Kettering Laboratory at the University of Cincinnati was organized under the direction of Dr. Robert Kehoe. Kehoe’s laboratory was set up for contract research on chemical hazards in the fluoride industry and for protection against litigation and government restrictions. …As medical director of the Ethyl Corporation, consultant to the Atomic Energy Commission and the Division of Occupational Medicine of the USPHS, Dr. Kehoe was committed to the suppression of industrial fluoride dangers. By 1931, most of Kettering Laboratory’s facilities were devoted to the study of fluorides.” http://www.whatcomwatch.org/php/WW_open.php?id=669
Robert A. Kehoe
Andrew W. Mellon (1855-1937) served as U.S. Secretary of the Treasury under three presidents, from 1921 to 1932. At that time the U.S. Public Health Service was administered by the Treasury. http://www.answers.com/topic/andrew-w-mellon
“…Mellon´s appointment led to a conflict of interest. When the U.S.P.H.S. left the Treasury during a reorganization in 1939, a review revealed that on one occasion “there was a tendency to suppress certain scientific reports of importance to the public health on the grounds that certain commercial interests might be offended
” (2) .” http://www.fluoride-history.de/bauxite.htm
Mellon descendents: …”To understand the Mellons of today, you need to understand their origins. There are four branches of the family, tracing back to the mid-1850s… It was [Thomas Mellon's sons] Andrew and his brother Richard Beatty Mellon who took..investment risks on coal, steel, aluminum, oil pipelines, railroads –thus supporting Pittsburgh’s rise”… http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/07182/798280-28.stm
“By the time he passed away in 1933, Richard B. Mellon had already given the bulk of his stock in the various Mellon enterprises to his two children, Richard King Mellon and Sarah Mellon Scaife…[Andrew] transferred the bulk of his stock..to his two children, Paul Mellon and Ailsa Mellon Bruce [married to David K. Bruce]… William [Larimer] Mellon, Jr. astounded other members of the family when he announced that he had decided.. [to go] back to school, at age thirty-seven, to become a doctor. After his graduation from Tulane University Medical School in 1953, he and his wife moved to Haiti where they built a hospital for the poor.”" http://email@example.com/msg03306.html >>> W.L.Mellon Jr may have been under the instruction of Drs. Alton Ochsner, Mary Sherman, and/or Cmdr.E.T. Haslam at Tulane Med during 1952-1953 who are part of the Doctor Mary’s Monkey/JFK Assassination story on this blog.
..”[O]ver a century ago, Pittsburgh magnate Andrew Mellon set out to build his own monopoly: In aluminum. Mellon started by buying bauxite mines around the nation, to deny competitors the key ore for smelting aluminum..” http://thetruthaboutalcoa.com/tag/rockefeller/
” is the name of a mineral which is essential for the production of the light metal aluminium. By purification (e.g. by the Bayer Process), the bauxite ore becomes alumina (aluminium oxide) which is mixed with a so-called “flux”, a specially prepared sodium fluoroaluminate (derived from natural or synthetic cryolite
plus sodium fluoride), and the molten mass is then subjected to an electric current which releases the aluminum metal. In the U.S.A. this process was patented by Charles Martin Hall who thus laid the foundation for the “Pittsburgh Reduction Company” which later was renamed “Aluminum Company of America” (ALCOA).” http://www.fluoride-history.de/bauxite.htm
The Fluoride Deception:
“Headquartered at the Mellon Institute, in 1937 the Air Hygiene Foundation had a membership list sporting many of the best-known names in industry, including Johns-Manville [top asbestos producer], Westinghouse, Monsanto, U.S. Steel, Union Carbide, Alcoa, and DuPont. And for the better part of the next thirty years the organization –later renamed the Industrial Hygiene Foundation– would profoundly shape the public debate over air pollution.” [p37] “We can blame today’s flood of death and disease in asbestos workers.. at least partly on the Air Hygiene Foundation and the long-ago diligence of the Mellon Institute and its director, Dr. E.R.['Ray']Weidlein.” [p38].”
…”in the summer of 1948..investigators from the Kettering Laboratory had found 120 cases of bone fluorosis in aluminum workers at Alcoa’s plant in Massena, New York… thirty-three of the workers were ‘severe’ cases and showed ‘evidences of disability ranging..up to 100 percent.’…The damaging data from Alcoa..[was] never published..or made public in any way.” 
Alcoa made the fuel for Oak Ridge: “The heart of the X-10 site, as the Laboratory was often called, was an experimental reactor far larger and more advanced than Fermi’s Chicago pile: a graphite cube 24 feet on each side, with seven-foot-thick concrete walls for radiation shielding. The reactor was riddled with 1,248 channels for air cooling and uranium fueling; the fuel—60,000 cylindrical “slugs” of uranium—was canned, literally, by the Aluminum Company of America.” http://www.ornl.gov/info/swords/swords.shtml
Richard King Mellon
(son of Richard Beatty Mellon): “..One of his more notable achievements was co-sponsoring (with the March of Dimes) the research that led Jonas Salk to the discovery of the vaccine that ended polio.” http://www.answers.com/topic/richard-king-mellon
In “AIDS, Opium, Diamonds and Empire”, Dr. Nancy T. Banks writes: “Fluoride weakens the immune system and may cause allergic type reactions… It causes birth defects and genetic damage, and because it can leach lead out of pipes, it can lead to lead toxicity which is characterized by anemia and mental retardation. Fluoride is likely to aggravate kidney disease, diabetes and hypothyroidism. Fluoride crosses the placenta… Ultramicroscopic study of embryonic brain tissue obtained from termination of pregnancy operations in endemic fluorosis areas showed ‘differentiation of brain nerve cells were poor and brain development was delayed’. In numerous animal studies, fluoride has been shown to decrease fertility.
“Fluoride is a known endocrine disrupter, and fluoride preparations were used in the 1930s to treat overactive thyroid illnesses. Patients either drank fluoridated water, swallowed fluoride pills, or were bathed in fluoridated bath water; and their thyroid function was, as a result, greatly depressed. Fluoride is an enzyme poison. Enzymes are complex protein compounds that vastly speed up biological chemical reactions. Their optimal function is what maintains our health at the cellular level. More than 75 million Americans use some form of thyroid medication.
“Fluoride also causes the breakdown of collagen which results in wrinkling of the skin and the weakening of ligaments, tendons and muscles. When fluoride was left in the phosphate that was sold to farmers, it killed their crops and livestock… [a] lawsuit won by farmers [in New Jersey] did not stop industry from giving fluoride to humans –only livestock… At the cellular level, fluoride has been shown to release superoxide free radicals… In the 1970s fluoride was linked to an increase in cancer. Taylor and Taylor from the University of Texas published a study in 1965 that was based on millions of subjects and showed a 5 to 10 percent increase in cancer death rate within 3 to 5 years after fluoridation was put into the water”… [pp72-73]
The Fluoride Deception followed several years after the 1997 exposition of the role of fluoride in the Manhattan Project, linked in the essay above. A fuller look at fluorides in the context of weapons programs and public health, specifically cross-referencing fluoride with the many milestones of polio, is the objective of this page. The benefit of hindsight in relation to ‘atomic bombs’, ‘polio’ and ‘fluoride’, is that existing technologies that led to ’world class’ weapons are visible much earlier in our history than we have supposed. Mr. Bryson offers invaluable links in the process of documenting this hidden history, but information about early fluoridation, before 1945, is scant or absent from The Fluoride Deception.
“Chris Bryson informs us that fluorine is, indeed, an essential element in the production of the atom bomb, and there is good reason to believe that fluoridated drinking water and toothpaste –and the development of the atom bomb– are closely related”. Adding to this in the Foreward of The Fluoride Deception, Dr. Theo Colborn also relates that in 1950 “Fluoride came on the market packaged in pediatric vitamin drops for infants.” Today, shoppers can walk into a WalMart and lift a gallon of specially fluoridated ‘Baby Water’ off the shelf. In fact, the US rules for bottled water intended for transport across state lines allows the highest possible amount of added fluoride based on federal guidelines, legally sold in states that don’t permit fluoridation. Buyer beware!
Most inquiries into public water fluoridation lead to the year 1945 as the starting point of fluoride promotion, pointing to the infamous “Project F”*, but ‘test’ fluoridation began at least 3 decades earlier and wide national testing was underway by the mid-1930s. The Newburgh-Kingston Fluorine Caries Trial* (1945-1955) was more likely a ‘combined effects’ study to secretly analyze the synergy of fluoride and radioactive fallout. Dr. Frederick McKay, who began his career as a dentist in Colorado about 1901, later said of the “F” program, “Newburgh has become another ‘biological experiment station’ in which the rationale is applied directly to humans without previous laboratory experiments on animals”. Even so, no laboratory was likely to recreate the real world effects of combined fallout. Fluoride was already, perhaps by WWII, the most caustic of toxic air pollutants.
The Kettering Beagle Study, which began October 6, 1958, used 42 beagle dogs forced to breathe fine particulate calcium fluoride dust “for six hours a day, five days a week” in mock work conditions. The results were ”startling –and not at all what the scientists had predicted….Autopsy revealed wounds to their lungs and lymph nodes..with inflamed lesions on the lung surface and a ‘fibrosis’, or a thickening of the lungs that was so marked in some cases that the researchers called it ‘emphysema’….The calcium fluoride had ‘disassociated’ inside the lung, transforming the dust into a corrosive acid deep inside the body, the report stated….These particles continued to wreak havoc on the body, dissolving and freeing fluoride ions..” –pp 187-189, The Fluoride Deception.
Frederick Sumner McKay
Original caption: Where Good Health for Teeth Begins. Colorado Springs, Colorado: Dr. Frederick S. McKay, 79-year-old Colorado Springs dentist and one of the winners of the 1952 Lasker Awards of the American Public Health Association, explains to a young patient how fluorides in drinking water contribute to good dental health for the public. Dr. McKay won the Lasker Award “for pioneer observations which have opened the way to effective community-wide reduction of dental troubles.” He was also cited “for leadership in the development of fluoridation programs for water supplies for better dental health.”
EARLY FLUORIDATION experiments on Colorado schoolchildren at the hands of Frederick McKay began as early as 1910.
Correspondence between G.V. Black and F.S. McKay on mottled enamel of teeth, 1907-1915: ”Between 1908 and 1915 Dr. Black and Dr. McKay, a practicing dentist in Colorado, had a running discussion concerning mottled teeth, or “Colorado Brown Stain”. Dr. Black spent the summer of 1909 in Colorado Springs to gather information and make observations… After Dr. Black’s death , McKay continued their studies and discovered that fluoride in drinking water was the causal agent…” http://www.galter.northwestern.edu/gvblack/testgv4.htm
“..During the spring of 1909 they examined 2945 children and were astounded to find that 87.5 percent were afflicted with some degree of stain or mottling, and those afflicted were native to the Pikes Peak region… This led to many years of research and study between the two men and culminated in the publication of their early report in Dental Cosmos in 1916… By 1931 Dr. McKay had spent over a quarter of a century establishing that mottled enamel of the teeth was caused by an excess of natural fluoride salts in the water supplies… Finally, after many years of research and hundreds of studies it was determined that one part fluoride per million parts water effectively reduced tooth decay up to 65 per cent… The fluoridation of drinking water is one of the greatest contributions the dental profession has made to society…” http://www.fauchard.org/awards/hall_of_fame/frederick_mckay.html
Audio interview from “The Real Deal” podcast:
Dr. Connett makes an unfortunately false statement by claiming “since fluoridation began in 1945 there’s never been another example where we’ve used the public water supply to deliver medicine.” Provably, radium, fluoride and iodine were all added to public water before 1930 as medicine, unlike chlorination which began in the U.S. near the turn of 1900 as a means of disinfection.
Mention is made by Dr. Connett that the U.S. Public Health Service approved fluoridation in 1950 before the results of any human studies were completed. Is this accurate? Could it be that fluoride experiments from the 20′s, 30′s, and 40′s provided the data which was subsequently held in secret?
Grand Rapids, Michigan* was the first U.S. city to institute fluoridation on the approval of Dr. H. Trendley Dean of the Public Health Service who had opposed the practice prior to the summer of 1944 and then “performed an unreported but spectacular flip-flop, transforming himself from foe to friend of water fluoridation. Just three months after giving Newburgh the thumbs-down, Dean announced that he now favored adding fluoride to public drinking water in the city of Grand Rapids… on January 25, 1945, America’s great fluoride experiment began… Dean’s wartime gyration was well rewarded. In 1948 he was appointed the first director of the National Institute of Dental Research, and in 1953 he took a senior position with the American Dental Association.”[p86, The Fluoride Deception] …”following the introduction of fluoride into city waters, Newburgh’s heart disease rate was found by researchers to be one of the highest in the United States… Heart disease also doubled just five years into the..experiment in Grand Rapids…” [p224]
*Gerald R. Ford was Grand Rapids’ congressional representative from 1949 to 1973, after which he ascended to unelected office http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/resources/pdf/gerald_ford.pdf
During the 1930s fluoride data was gathered from dozens of towns such as Bartlett, Texas where the water supply contained 8 ppm, and other “control” locations where the rates were near 0.4 ppm. Questions about general and specific physical damage from toxicity were on the minds of surveyors:
..”After the examination, in February 1932, of a group of children in Minonk, Illinois, Henry Trendley Dean wrote in his report to the Surgeon General: ‘Following the Minonk examination, a new phase of this question seems ripe for further study. Is mottled enamel merely an oral manifestation of a general toxicity, or something similar? The hair of some of these mottled enamel cases is unusually course, almost like horse hair. Fingernails are apparently not normal. Two of three local physicians state that there is apparently an unusually large amount of skin disorders among those using the city water supply. Future surveys will attempt to obtain the additional dermatological data…” www.fluoride-history.de/bartlett.htm
Frederick McKay published the shape of the question in 1933:
“The constant dosage of fluorine in water in these extremely attenuated concentrations may express itself in mild pathologic lesions of other tissues which, through their inherent vital functions, may be coincidentally repaired. No such function resides within the enamel, as is well understood by dental science. The disturbing influence of fluorine on the process of enamel calcification is never offset; hence, this lesion of the enamel remains as the only index of the toxicity of that element for the individual.” McKay, F.S.: J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 20 (1933) 1137-1149
It was further noted that ”A pediatrician of Amarillo, Texas reported in 1934, ‘defective development of the long bones in babies whose diet includes water with fluorides in toxic amount’ …in Amarillo the mean annual ‘F’ content is close to 4.0 parts per million.”
The famous “Project F” which was perpetrated in Newburgh, NY (Kingston, NY was the ‘control’) was an opportunity for Manhattan Project scientists to practice dentistry –why? Is it possible that “free dental exams” were a way to collect information on radioactive strontium-90 which accumulates in children’s teeth? Was the ten-year Newburgh/Kingston fluoride trial dual-purposed as a fallout study?
Initiated as a means of determining toxic risk to wartime fluorine workers, Bryson wrote that “Secretly, in tandem with the state’s public investigation, Hodge’s classified ‘Program F’ at the University of Rochester conducted its own studies, measuring how much fluoride Newburgh citizens retained in their blood and tissues –key information sought by the atomic bomb program. Health Department personnel cooperated, shipping blood and placenta samples to the Rochester scientists.” [p83] Expedient risk assessment for acute illness in wartime workers logically did not need to last longer than the war –four years of data surpassed wartime exposures, technically absolving government regulators from lawsuits.
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry was co-founded by Abraham Flexner, author of the Carnegie-sponsored “Flexner Report” in 1910 and brother of Simon Flexner, director of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, and Bernard Flexner, lawyer, ”ardent Zionist” and organizer. Abraham Flexner also founded the Institute of Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, N.J. http://www.rochester.edu/inauguration/address.html
Salk Institute research Fellow, Herman Moritz Kalckar, is credited with measuring fallout in children’s teeth:
…”In 1958 Kalckar accepted a professorship in the Department of Biology of Johns Hopkins University. This year also marked the publication of his highly original proposal that the contamination of foodstuffs from the fallout following atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons could be measured by the analysis of the content of strontium-90 in the milk-teeth of young children. As he pointed out, measurement of radiation from deciduous incisor teeth would reveal the levels of isotope ingested about seven years previous to shedding of the teeth, when the calcified structure of the teeth had been deposited. By this proposal Kalckar hoped to focus attention in a dramatic way on the pollution of the environment by tests of nuclear weapons. The idea attracted considerable attention, and extensive collections of milk-teeth were in fact made, particularly by a group of researchers at Washington University in St. Louis. It was learned that milk-teeth from children born in 1956 contained about ten times more strontium-90 than teeth from children born in 1950. Fortunately, after the ban on atmospheric testing the levels fell once again to lower levels [polioforever
-- but they did not stay low! The "ban" was initiated with a moratorium and resumed as underground testing, in every case, breaching to the atmosphere].” http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/biomems/hkalckar.html
Noted from this reference is Kalckar’s intimacy with atomic physics: younger brother Fritz Kalckar (died 1938) was a protege of Niels Bohr. Herman received his MD from the University of Copenhagen in 1933 and came to the U.S. as a Rockefeller grantee in 1939 to study biochemistry at Caltech. Kalckar took up permanent U.S. residency in 1952 was appointed to the Salk Institute in April of 1960.
Harold Hodge,we are told, was the nation’s leading promoter of fluoridation. A review of the Manhattan Project effort to obtain the bomb-grade uranium isotope U-235 indicates that massive quantities of gasified uranium hexafluoride were needed by the Project. Fluorine compounds were also critical as “machine oils”, referred to as “special oils” by the Health Physics documents on this website. The Fluoride Deception:”..Harold Hodge from the University of Rochester and Alcoa’s [lawyer] Frank Seamans, head of the Fluorine Lawyers Committee. No two people were in a better position to know the risk from airborne fluoride pollution. [p186]. On April 16, 1957, Seamans sent a letter to the Fluorine Lawyers, titled “Re: Kettering Research re Human Beings.” He laid out how much each corporation would contribute. Checks would be sent on a quarterly basis directly from the companies to the Kettering Laboratory. U.S. Steel, Alcoa, Kaiser Aluminum, Reynolds Metals, and Alcan paid the lion’s share, each putting up $30,535 for the first year; Olin Revere Metals, Monsanto Chemical, West Vaco Chemical, TVA, and Tennessee Corporation made smaller commitments.” [This refers to the inhalation experiment performed on dogs in 1958] “The Manhattan Project’s Rochester division had already reported earlier experiments with hydrogen fluoride gas on dogs. At concentrations of approximately 8.8 parts per million of hydrogen fluoride, the lungs of one out of five dogs hemorrhaged.” [p110]
FLUORINE is the most reactive (least stable) of the five Halogen elements; fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astantine. None are found as free elements in nature, but must be separated and recombined to make extremely useful bonded chemical ‘salts’. The word ‘halogen’ comes from Greek, meaning ‘salt producing’ and the word ‘fluorine’ comes from Latin, meaning ‘flow’ (for its use as a flux to make molten metal flow).
An example of bromine’s usefulness to the military complex is given in the 1947 book “Treason’s Peace” by Howard Ambruster:
“The nitrogen and sulfur mustards (p-chloroalkylamines and sulfides) have been studied especially extensively and found to be potent mutagens for all organisms studied. In general, their effects are similar to those of x-rays and UV but there are differences in detail
is structurally most like the essential trace mineral iodine
which it can inhibit and displace as can all halogens which are virtually interchangeable. Bromine is used extensively in processed foods. A sample iodine therapy to detox bromine and fluoride is here: http://www.breastcancerchoices.org/iprotocol.html